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JANUARY 2017

OUR 64TH YEAR

THE EXTRAORDINARY VISION OF AMERICA BY THE EARLIEST PHOTOGRAPHERS TO EXPLORE THE WEST Including

• MOUNTAIN MEN WITH CAMERAS • THE FIRST PHOTO OF YOSEMITE • THE EARLIEST KNOWN IMAGE OF AN INDIAN CAMP • THE 1872 PHOTO OF OLD FAITHFUL ERUPTING 150 FT. • INCREDIBLE PHOTOS TAKEN FROM GREAT HEIGHTS

$5.99 • TrueWestMagazine.com

The Artists of Taos Exhibition: January 10 – April 30, 2017  Symposium: April 6 – 7, 2017 Sponsored by A major exhibition featuring many of the finest artworks by members of the Taos Society of Artists — one of the most influential and highly acclaimed artist groups in the nation’s history

Julius Rolshoven, The Council, ca. 1916-17, oil on paper, mounted on board; Courtesy the Peterson Family Collection.

Smithsonian Affiliate

3830 N. Marshall Way  Scottsdale, Arizona  480-686-9539  scottsdalemuseumwest.org

Reputation matters.

Historic Custer Battlefield Rifle. (Details upon request)

SHOW & AUCTION JANUARY 21-22, 2017 MESA, ARIZONA WESTERN AMERICANA ANTIQUE SHOW Weekend Shopping Event! Over 150 national dealers Saturday, January 21, 9:00 am - 4:00 pm Sunday, January 22, 9:00 am - 3:00 pm $10 daily or purchase online and save: OldWestEvents.com/purchase-tickets SHOW LOCATION Show Location: Mesa Convention Center 263 N. Center Street, Mesa, AZ 85201 WESTERN AMERICANA AUCTION Saturday, January 21, 5:00 pm Preview Hours: Thursday, January 19, 2:00 pm - 6:00 pm Friday, January 20, 9:00 am - 5:00 pm Saturday, January 21, 9:00 am - 4:30 pm Purchase catalogs online: OldWestEvents.com/catalogs

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Ope n i ngShOt We Take You There

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1 Harry Yount at Berthoud Pass Harry Yount sits at Berthoud Pass, in the Rocky Mountains of central Colorado, in the above 1874 photograph taken by William H. Jackson during the Ferdinand V. Hayden Survey. Six years later, Yount (also shown in inset) became the first and only gamekeeper for Yellowstone National Park. He is credited as the first national park ranger (some debate Galen Clark was actually the first); Yount pointed out how impossible it was for one man to patrol the park and urged the government to form a ranger force. – Courtesy usGs –

True West captures the spirit of the West with authenticity, personality and humor by providing a necessary link from our history to our present.

EDITORIAL

True West Online TrueWestMagazine.com

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January 2017 Online and Social Media Content

EXECUTIVE EDITOR: Bob Boze Bell EDITOR: Meghan Saar SENIOR EDITOR: Stuart Rosebrook FEATURES EDITOR: Mark Boardman EDITORIAL TEAM Copy Editor: Beth Deveny Firearms Editor: Phil Spangenberger Westerns Film Editor: Henry C. Parke Military History Editor: Col. Alan C. Huffines, U.S. Army Preservation Editor: Jana Bommersbach Social Media Editor: Rhiannon Deremo PRODUCTION MANAGER: Robert Ray ART DIRECTOR: Daniel Harshberger GRAPHIC DESIGNER: Rebecca Edwards MAPINATOR EMERITUS: Gus Walker HISTORICAL CONSULTANT: Paul Hutton CONTRIBUTING EDITORS Tom Augherton, Allen Barra, Leo W. Banks, John Boessenecker, Johnny D. Boggs, Drew Gomber, Kevin Kibsey, Sherry Monahan, Candy Moulton, Frederick Nolan, Gary Roberts, Marshall Trimble, Linda Wommack ARCHIVIST/PROOFREADER: Ron Frieling PUBLISHER EMERITUS: Robert G. McCubbin TRUE WEST FOUNDER: Joe Austell Small (1914-1994)

Join the Conversation In response to Mark Boardman’s blog post about Granville Stuart, True West Facebook follower Terry D. Baddley of Brigham City, Utah, contributed this photo of the “Gentleman Vigilante.”

Go behind the scenes of True West with Bob Boze Bell to see his painting, Over Treacherous Trails, and more of the executive editor’s Daily Whipouts (Search for “October 24, 2016“). Blog.TrueWestMagazine.com

ADVERTISING/BUSINESS PRESIDENT & CEO: Bob Boze Bell PUBLISHER & CRO: Ken Amorosano GENERAL MANAGER: Carole Compton Glenn ASSOCIATE PUBLISHER: Dave Daiss SALES & MARKETING DIRECTOR: Ken Amorosano REGIONAL SALES MANAGERS Greg Carroll ([emailprotected]) Arizona, California, Idaho, Iowa, Kansas, Nevada & Washington Cynthia Burke ([emailprotected]) Montana, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Utah & Wyoming Sheri Riley ([emailprotected]) Colorado, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, Oregon, Tennessee & Texas ADMINISTRATIVE ASSISTANT: Samantha Shores January 2017, Vol. 64, #1, Whole #564. True West (ISSN 0041-3615) is published twelve times a year (January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September, October, November, December) by True West Publishing, Inc., 6702 E. Cave Creek Rd, Suite #5 Cave Creek, AZ 85331. 480-575-1881. Periodical postage paid at Cave Creek, AZ 85327, and at additional mailing offices. Canadian GST Registration Number R132182866. Single copies: $5.99. U.S. subscription rate is $29.95 per year (12 issues); $49.95 for two years (24 issues). POSTMASTER: Please send address change to: True West, P.O. Box 8008, Cave Creek, AZ 85327. Printed in the United States of America. Copyright 2016 by True West Publishing, Inc. Information provided is for educational or entertainment purposes only. True West Publishing, Inc. assumes no liability or responsibility for any inaccurate, delayed or incomplete information, nor for any actions taken in reliance thereon. Any unsolicited manuscripts, proposals, query letters, research, images or other documents that we receive will not be returned, and True West Publishing is not responsible for any materials submitted.

SUBSCRIPTIONS, RENEWALS AND ADDRESS CHANGES

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This buckskin-clad hunter proudly poses with a bear and his weapon that no doubt killed it—a Sharps Model 1874 sporting rifle, made in Bridgeport, Connecticut. Find this and more historical photography on our “Firearms” board. Pinterest.com/TrueWestMag – COURTESY DICKINSON RESEARCH CENTER, NATIONAL COWBOY & WESTERN HERITAGE MUSEUM, 1994.10.1744 –

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OPENING SHOT SHOOTING BACK TO THE POINT TRUTH BE KNOWN INVESTIGATING HISTORY OLD WEST SAVIORS FRONTIER FARE CLASSIC GUNFIGHTS UNSUNG WESTERN ROUNDUP ASK THE MARSHALL WHAT HISTORY HAS TAUGHT ME

Cover design by Dan Harshberger

INSIDE THIS ISSUE J A N U A RY 2 0 1 7 • V O L U M E 6 4 • I S S U E 1

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A MAN OF MANY FIRSTS Joseph Rutherford Walker blazed trails in the nation’s first government surveys. —By Kate Ruland-Thorne

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HAYDEN’S HALLOWED EXPEDITION The 150th anniversary of the birth of the American West’s four major surveys. —By Thomas P. Huber

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S h o o t i ng B ac k

– Courtesy Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer studios & ColuMbia PiCtures –

C o m p i l e d BY R o B e Rt R aY

Magnificent entertainMent I take issue with Henry C. Parke’s review of the new Magnificent Seven movie starring Denzel Washington [November 2016]. He calls the film “less than magnificent” and “flat.” He also finds the actors disappointing. I found just the opposite to be true. I found the acting great, the scenery stunning and the action ongoing and exciting. There were also some good comedic moments. My wife and I found this to be a good old-fashioned Western. I urge your readers to go watch this film at the theater, and I feel that they will be pleased. I have watched hundreds, maybe even thousands, of Westerns, and this Western is very entertaining and enjoyable. Heck, my wife even clapped with appreciation when the film ended! The Western is alive and well!

california calaMity Great article about the San Francisco 1906 Earthquake and Fire [November 2016]. Keep them coming! However, the captioned photo of the burnt out city [below] states, “The destruction hits home in this photo of Grant Avenue toward Yerba Buena Island.” The street in question is actually California Street, which runs downhill in this eastward-looking photo, not Grant Avenue. California Street runs east-west, while Grant Avenue runs north-south. (Grant Avenue is actually just in front of the burned out shell of St. Mary Cathedral at the extreme left of the photo. Across California Street, on the southeast corner of Grant [formerly Dupont], is the spot where “Emperor” Norton— featured in your December 2016 issue—died in 1880). This classic photo clearly shows the cable car tracks running the length of California Street; Grant Avenue never had cable car tracks. James “Crimp” Jarvis San Francisco, California Editors: Thank you for writing in to share your local knowledge! The Chicago Tribune and the Associated Press have published this historical photograph with those details, so we appreciate you helping us get this correct!

Bob Cochran Fort Madison, Iowa

last Visit witH Joaquin

Big Bend National Park owes its founding to a former Texas Ranger, E.E. Townsend, who, in 1894, discovered its grandeur while trailing mule thieves through the wilderness. It was a life-changing event for Townsend, and he dedicated 50 years to making the park a reality. Other Texas Rangers who were impacted by the area included John Coffee “Jack” Hays, who nearly starved to death while searching for a southern trade route in 1848 (the Hays-Highsmith Expedition). Rangers Charles Neville and Capt. Jim Gillette also influenced the personality of the area. I asked Joaquin if I could include him in an interpretive program about these Texas Rangers and their stories of taming the last frontier, and he said he felt honored to be included with these proud lawmen.

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My thanks for including a piece on Texas Ranger Joaquin Jackson [December 2016]. He contributed an element of historical context to our already rich Texas Ranger history here in west Texas. And most important, he was a friend—he made you feel special, and he closed his writings with “Su amigo siempre.”

long May He ride

As a personal note, I was a young buck growing up in Carrizo Springs, Texas, when Joaquin was a rookie Ranger working under Capt. A.Y. Allee. When Allee brought these handsome newly recruited lawmen to town, all the young ladies swooned, leaving us town boys green with envy. During my last visit with Joaquin, we laughed at those early years. He left one hell of a story.

Thank you for honoring Hugh O’Brian [December 2016]. Having attended a number of the magazine’s events in the Cave Creek area of Arizona over the years, I know that Hugh O’Brian and his role as Wyatt Earp were important to you. I am sorry for the loss. I grew up during the era of Westerns, and these classics all mean a lot to me. He was one of the good guys.

Rob Dean Terlingua, Texas

Bruce Howard Scottsdale, Arizona

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TO THE POINT BY B O B B OZ E B E L L

The Man Collectors Trust

The 2017 True Westerner award goes to Brian Lebel.

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rian Lebel has had his hands on some pretty amazing Western history. He is the guy who brought the Billy the Kid tintype to the True West offices, in the spring of 2011, and allowed us to hold it in our hands. What a day that was! When you hold the real photo, you can see so many things. It’s downright emotional. And, of course, Brian was the one who facilitated the auction of that tintype. His Old West Auction sold the one-and-only Kid photograph to William Koch for $2.3 million. Brian has also handled Tom Horn’s Winchester, the gun that killed Morgan Earp, Annie Oakley’s wedding ring and an original reward poster for Frank and Jesse James. He’s seen up close and personal a ton of valuable artwork, gear and saddles that were showcased in his collectibles show, held along with the auction, in his nearly 30-year career. The list goes on and on. Old West history collectors turn to him now more than ever. In 2014, the 25th anniversary year of his Old West event, Brian and his wife, Melissa, acquired High Noon Show & Auction, held every January in Mesa, Arizona. He is certainly doing all he can to help preserve and present America’s frontier history through the arts and artifacts of the American West. It gives me great pleasure to bestow upon Brian our highest honor, True Westerner of the Year. On January 21, True West will present the True Westerner statue to Brian at Western Spirit: Scottsdale’s Museum of the West, this year’s Best Western Museum. For more of the year’s Best, read on!

Brian Lebel (left) believes more people will appreciate great Old West artifacts so long as they are aware of what is available. This is why he launched his own auction, and he has been the guy collectors go to ever since. – COURTESY BRIAN LEBEL –

2 Blackfeet Chiefs on the Northern Plains For a behind-the-scenes look at running this magazine, check out BBB’s daily blog at TWMag.com

In the footpaths of the West’s earliest photographers, Edward S. Curtis hoped to capture the disappearing frontier. Through his Old West Auction, Brian Lebel got this circa 1900 Curtis photograph, “Three Chiefs Piegan,” into the hands of an appreciative collector, who paid nearly $12,000 for the original platinum print. – COURTESY BRIAN LEBEL’S OLD WEST AUCTION, JUNE 24, 2004 –

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T RU T H B E K NOW N C O M P I L E D BY R O B E RT R AY

Bizarro

Quotes

BY DA N P I R A R O

“Place and people are made familiar to us by means of the camera in the hands of skillful operators, who, vying with each other in the excellence of their productions, avail themselves of every opportunity to visit interesting points, and to take care to lose no good chance to scour the country in search of new fields for photographic labor.” – Timothy O’Sullivan, Irish-American photographer

“Only photography has been able to divide human life into a series of moments, each of them has the value of a complete existence.” – Eadweard Muybridge, British-American photographer

“You press the button— we do the rest.” – Kodak camera 1889 advertisem*nt

“In wisdom gathered over time I have found that every experience is a form of exploration.” – Ansel Adams, American photographer

“And if any work that I have done should have value beyond my own lifetime, I believe it will be the happy labors of the decade 1869-1878.” —William Henry Jackson, American photographer

3 William Henry Jackson

Self-Portrait on Mount Washburn, Yellowstone, 1871. – COURTESY NATIONAL PARK SERVICE –

Edward S. Curtis Self-portrait, circa 1889. – TRUE WEST ARCHIVES –

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“For every negative that is a disappointment, there is one that is a joy.” – Edward S. Curtis, American photographer

Old Vaquero Saying

“Life is like photography, we use the negatives to develop.”

I n v e st I gat I ng H I st O ry BY m a r k B o a r d m a n

Buffalo Bill Lies Here—Or Here Two sites continue the fight over the Wild West showman’s grave.

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illiam F. Cody—Buffalo Bill—was arguably one of the great showmen of all times. He would probably enjoy the ongoing public spectacle about where he’s buried. Here’s what historians know, they think. Cody, the master of the Wild West show, died of kidney failure while visiting his sister in Denver, Colorado, on January 10, 1917. The old boy was just short of 71 when the curtains closed. His wife had him buried on top of Lookout Mountain, west of Denver. And that should have been that. But no. Cody’s 1906 will stated he was to be interred on Cedar Mountain, outside Cody, Wyoming. A later will, dated 1913, let Cody’s widow decide his final resting place; she chose Colorado, saying that Buffalo Bill had told her he wanted to spend eternity there. Cody’s niece, Mary Jester Allen, disputed that, saying Denver paid the widow $10,000 to move the gravesite. Wyoming officials were outraged, and people made threats to steal the corpse and take it north.

Who would spirit Buffalo Bill’s body to his namesake town? They had an opportunity to do just that, because Cody’s burial had to be delayed. The Lookout Mountain ground was frozen at the time of Cody’s death and his body was kept—under guard—at a local funeral home until the ground warmed. On June 3, the remains were encased in a concrete vault atop the mountain (Mrs. Cody died in 1921 and was later buried in the same vault, on top of her husband—with a bit more concrete added

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Despite helping drive the showman to financial ruin, The Denver Post owner Harry Tammen paid for Buffalo Bill Cody’s elaborate funeral in Denver, Colorado. – Courtesy Library of Congress –

for good measure). That wasn’t the end of the burial contest, though. Zoom forward to 1948. American Legion members in Cody offered $10,000 to anybody who would spirit Buffalo Bill’s body to his namesake town. The Colorado National Guard responded by stationing troops around the burial site. And in 2006, Wyoming state legislators—as a joke—debated a proposal to dig up Cody. There’s more. Some folks in Wyoming believe that Cody was buried in their state. According to one conspiracy theory, people snuck into the funeral home where his body was kept, switched it with that of a similar looking vagrant and took the Cody corpse to Cedar Mountain. No evidence proves that occurred;

in fact, thousands of people—including family and close friends—saw Cody’s remains just before the interment. Steve Friesen, the director of the Buffalo Bill Museum and Grave in Golden, Colorado, just laughs over the entire thing. In a July 2015 Los Angeles Times article, he suggested that Wyoming folks have too much time on their hands. Bruce Eldredge, executive director and CEO of the Buffalo Bill Center of the West in Cody, Wyoming, diplomatically says he’s not surprised the two states both claim the man. If nothing else, the whole fandango gives the Buffalo Bill buff a reason to visit both Lookout Mountain and Cody. Buffalo Bill’s around there, somewhere....

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Crown City’s Old Vistas

Coronado Island showcases its sweeping history in incredible art murals.

Coronado Island tourists talk with the artist, Todd Stands (sitting at far left), about his art collages of historical photographs (see detail above right) that bring to life the swim-and-sun-worshipping people who enjoyed adventures in the resort destination. – STANDS AT TENT CITY MURAL PHOTO BY JANA BOMMERSBACH; CITY HALL MURAL DETAIL COURTESY CITY OF CORONADO –

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ox after box of photos. Day after day. One image more fabulous than the next. Photographer Todd Stands thought he knew a lot about “Coronado Island,” as it’s usually called, but after viewing “tens of thousands” of photographs supplied by the Coronado Historical Association, he saw the California city in a new light. The City of Coronado was building a new City Hall and wanted to commemorate the rich history of this resort town next to San Diego, founded in the late 1800s and named after the Spanish word meaning “crowned one.” The city commissioned Stands to create giant collages of historical photos to cover the north and south walls of City Hall’s lobby, making it into a permanent art gallery. Stands spent weeks choosing 500 images and a month scanning them into a computer. Then he set to work. “I had hundreds of incredible images,” he recalls. “I’d think, ‘I need a plane,’ and find

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one, then think, ‘Hey, I’ve got a better plane.’ I made thousands of collages. I would bring them in to city officials for all to see. The hardest part for any public arts project is getting everyone on the same page.” He produced nine foot-by-18 foot murals. The one on the north wall has 45 photos; for the south wall, 57. Just 102 pictures in all, installed in 2005. But what a story they tell. The north collage, titled “Photographic Memory #1,” includes photos of the original boathouse and baths of Hotel del Coronado from 1888-1891—a hotel that is still the most recognizable feature of this community; ferryboats from the late 1800s; golf in 1918; a “Coronado matron at polo match,” circa 1920; the Coronado High School football team from 1923; the dirigible Shenandoah from 1924—as well as an amphibious plane and the first hydroplane flown by Glenn Curtiss in 1911. The south mural, “Photographic Memory #2,” includes pictures of a double-decker

streetcar, circa 1889; the Japanese Tea Garden wishing well from around 1908; the ferry Ramona, 1904; the island’s first schoolhouse in 1888; the regatta from 1935; the Boy Scout Liberty Bond drive of 1914; and “Elena Whiley with her clavichord,” 1921. Both murals include images from “Tent City,” which stood from 1900 to 1939 adjacent to “The Del,” and housed folks who couldn’t afford the hotel’s high prices. The city officials commissioned Stands to do a second mural project on Tent City, with photos printed on glazed tiles for an outdoor display. The mural panels were installed in 2009, on the very site where Tent City once stood—now the Glorietta Bay Promenade. Stands says he’s proud of all the collages he created: “They give people a visual of the depth of this place.” Jana Bommersbach has earned recognition as Arizona’s Journalist of the Year and won an Emmy and two Lifetime Achievement Awards. She cowrote the Emmy-winning Outrageous Arizona and has written two true crime books, a children’s book and the historical novel Cattle Kate.

F ro n t i e r Fa r e BY S H E R RY M O N A H A N

Denver’s Unsinkable Hostess Molly Brown found acceptance among frontier Denver’s high society.

These ladies in Denver, Colorado, enjoy an elegant meal. Margaret Brown found acceptance with the upper crust, although some still pricked her honor. When she had German craftsmen create a “silver lunch wagonette,” which could be wheeled from room to room to offer guests tea, coffee and small dishes, some socialites made fun of her.

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– Courtesy Brown PalaCe arChives –

efore she became famous as the “Unsinkable Molly Brown,” after surviving the 1912 sinking of Titanic, Margaret Tobin-Brown arrived in Denver, Colorado, when elegant entertaining was at its height on Capitol Hill. In 1894, she and her husband, James, bought an extravagant home, in the fashionable neighborhood on Pennsylvania Street, purchased with his newly acquired mining money. Within a few years, Denver’s high society accepted the Hannibal, Missouri, native into social circles. By 1897, the community showcased her among the “Urban Beauties” in the parade at the Festival of Mountain and Plain. On June 22, 1898, Margaret hosted one of the many luncheon parties held during Denver’s biennial week. The governor’s wife, Mrs. Alva Adams, was among her guests. The following year, Margaret moved to Paris, France. When she returned to Denver after her year-long trip, at the turn of the

20th century, she became well-known for her parties. The Denver Post reported, “One always looks for beauty of arrangement and general details when Mrs. James J. Brown comes forward as a hostess....” Denver’s high society standards reflected the Victorian times in which they lived. Expensive invitations were mailed or delivered. Parties and balls included anywhere from 50 to several hundred guests. Luncheons and dinners required written invitations, but were more intimate affairs. And parties commonly had a theme, such as the card party thrown by Mrs. Robert Levy with a Halloween theme. Golden pumpkins bloomed with golden chrysanthemums and masses of ferns. She served a “dainty” luncheon of ices, cakes and confections— all in fall colors and shapes. In the late 1890s, the Post printed recipes for entertaining. A party’s menu could include sweetbread patties, chicken croquettes, asparagus, Saratoga chips,

Saratoga chips proved trendy during Margaret’s party-throwing days.

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chocolate, tomato salad, strawberry sherbet and Spanish chocolate cake. “The first thing to be thought of after the menu has been decided upon,” the paper noted, “is how to make the lunch table most attractive.... Put only what is necessary on the table at any time. It is correct to leave salted almonds on the table throughout the meal and they may be eaten at any time.” The paper went on to describe how to serve the meal: “After your guests are seated, have the maid bring the patties to each place, or if the maid is experienced, have one at each place when you sit down. After removing the patties, have a chicken croquet, with short, tender pieces of asparagus beside it, and Saratoga chips, all on one plate, brought to each guest. This leaves only the bread to be passed....” Margaret once threw a holiday party featuring a table arranged in figure eight form with a water fountain, in a mound of ferns and palms, at the center. A Christmas tree lit up with candles and glittering with ornaments added a festive touch. About 70 guests enjoyed the dinner served on Molly’s china, which had green clovers and red berries to reflect her Irish heritage. Cast yourself into Denver’s frontier high society and try the Saratoga chips that proved trendy during Margaret’s party-throwing days. Sherry Monahan has penned Mrs. Earp: Wives & Lovers of the Earp Brothers; California Vines, Wines & Pioneers; Taste of Tombstone; The Wicked West and Tombstone’s Treasure. She’s appeared on the History Channel in Lost Worlds and other shows.

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November 3, 1883

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Black Bart’s Bad day Black Bart vs

reason Mcconnell & JiMMy rolleri things get Funky on Funk hill

“I’ve labored long and hard for bread For honor and for riches But on my corns too long you’ve tread You fine haired sons of bitches.” —Black Bart, the P o 8 – IllustratIons by bob boze bell –

by bob boze bell Maps & Graphics by Gus Walker Based on the research of George Hoeper and John Boessenecker

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t’s a Saturday as the SonoraMilton stage rattles along, empty, save for the driver. Reason E. McConnell has been on the road for three hours since he stopped at the Patterson Mine, near Tuttletown, California, picking up $4,200 worth of amalgamated gold. The Wells Fargo box also contains $500 in gold coin and $64 in raw gold. McConnell finally reins up in front of the Reynolds Ferry Hotel, nestled along the banks of the Stanislaus River. Jimmy Rolleri, the hotel manager’s 19-year-old son, exits the hotel and exchanges the outgoing mail for the incoming. Glancing at the empty coach, Rolleri asks if he can catch a ride up the hill on the opposite side of the river. A traveler who had stopped at the hotel the previous night reported seeing “two big bucks up there on the flat above Yaqui Gulch,” he says. McConnell tells the boy to grab his gun, and Rolleri returns with a “wellworn but serviceable .44 Henry rifle.” With the help of Henry Requa, the two successfully ferry the stage across the river. Requa returns the ferry to the hotel side of the river, and Rolleri jumps up on the box with McConnell, who slaps the reins of his team, encouraging them up the steep approach to Funk Hill. Halfway up the long grade, Rolleri asks McConnell to slow down. He jumps off with his rifle, thanks McConnell for the lift and heads out into the underbrush to hunt for the big bucks. The six-horse team continues on, struggling up the steep grade for another 30 minutes. As the stage rounds the head of Yaqui Gulch, with the ridge line in sight, the lead horses snort and rear in fright when a lone, hooded figure, shotgun in hand, leaps into the roadway. Wearing a dirt-smudged duster and a flour sack with eye holes cut into them, the highwayman demands the Wells Fargo box be thrown down. McConnell informs the robber it’s bolted down. The outlaw tells the driver to unhitch his team, but McConnell protests, fearing the stage will roll down the hill due to its bad brakes. The robber’s solution is for McConnell to

wedge rocks behind the wheels, but the driver brashly pushes his luck by stating, “Why don’t you do it?” Incredibly, the hooded robber keeps his shotgun trained on the driver, picks up several stones and blocks the back wheels. McConnell then unhitches the team and leads it uphill. “If you don’t want to get shot,” the robber warns him, “don’t come back or even look back in this direction for at least one hour.” While leading the team, McConnell hears the robber banging away at the strongbox. Sneaking glances toward the coach, he can’t see the brigand, who has probably crawled into the stagecoach. Two hundred yards from the stage, McConnell stops to catch his breath when downhill movement catches his eye. It’s Jimmy Rolleri, the Henry rifle in the crook of his arm, moving across an open swale of land about 300 yards below. Tying his team to an oak tree, McConnell runs downhill as quietly as he can, frantically waving his hat until he gets Rolleri’s attention. Coming up the hill, Rolleri first thinks McConnell has discovered the deer. But the driver fills him in on the situation, and the two warily approach the stage with the intent of capturing the outlaw, or killing him. When they get within 100 yards, the bandit suddenly emerges from the stage and spots them. The outlaw throws a sack over his shoulder and starts to run. McConnell borrows Rolleri’s rifle and fires twice, missing the robber both times. “Here, let me shoot,” young Rolleri says. “I’ll get him and I won’t kill him, either.” With Rolleri’s shot, the outlaw stumbles, but he vanishes into the underbrush with his booty. When the county sheriff and a Wells Fargo detective arrive, they discover what the brigand left behind in his hasty retreat: a derby hat, three pairs of cuffs, an opera glass case and a silk crepe handkerchief with the laundry mark “F.X.O.7.” on it. After eight years and 28 successful stage holdups, this last item will prove to be Black Bart’s undoing.

A rare photo of the Reynolds Hotel ferry, which leads the stage to a precarious spot on the crest of Funk Hill. Black Bart will revisit the site of his first holdup for his 29th stage robbery attempt. – Courtesy tuolumne County ArChives –

– Courtesy Wells FArgo BAnk –

When his photo is taken in Stockton, Black Bart quips: “Will that thing go off? I would like to go off myself.”

A Dapper Disguise

Poetic Justice: Young Jimmy Rolleri (left) fires the shot that wings Black Bart and forces him to leave behind the handkerchief with a laundry stamp—a clue that Wells Fargo Detective Harry Morse (above) parlays into a collar. – Courtesy riChArd rolleri –

Looking more like a banker than a common stage robber, Black Bart cuts a distinguished figure around San Francisco (his hideout), where he poses as a mining investor named Charles Bolton. The Monday after the stage robbery, Detective Harry Morse begins matching laundry marks from a handkerchief left at the scene with those of the 91 laundry centers in San Francisco. By the afternoon, he has a match. When a nattily-dressed suspect is taken to Wells Fargo headquarters, the agents are shocked as he looks like “anything but a stage robber.” By the end of the week, Black Bart confesses and leads officers to the buried gold. He also poses for the above photograph. By all accounts, the bandit is witty, selfeffacing and intelligent. He even writes a letter from prison to Reason McConnell, who he thanks for being such a lousy shot. He ends the warm letter with: “You sir, have my best wishes for an unmolested, prosperous and happy drive through life.” t r u e

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Black Bart’s Odd Style While most stage robbers ride horses for a faster getaway, Bart walks. And unlike most, he acts alone (not an easy task considering the multiple factors to control: the horses, the road, the driver and the passengers). At two of the robbery sites, he leaves zany poetry, signing it: “Black Bart, the Po8.” Wells Fargo officials admit that the bandit poet hit the company 28 times. Although the total amount of money stolen is unknown, here’s a listing of his known robberies and amounts taken.

14. September 16, 1880, Jackson County, Oregon The second nighttime robbery of the Roseburg, Oregon, to Yreka, California, stage, occurring one mile north of the state line. Taken: Approximately $1,000. 15. September 23, 1880, Jackson County, Oregon The Roseburg, Oregon, to Redding, California, stage, robbed three miles north of the border. Taken: $1,000 in gold dust and from mail sack. 16. November 20, 1880, Siskiyou County Again, the Roseburg, Oregon, to Redding, California, stage—a mile south of the state line shortly after dark. Taken: Unknown. 17. August 31, 1881, Siskiyou County Around one a.m., the third robbery of the Roseburg, Oregon, to Yreka, California, stage. The stage is robbed 10 miles north of Yreka. Taken: Wells Fargo loss not disclosed. 18. October 8, 1881, Shasta County Midnight robbery of the Yreka to Redding, California, stage near Bass Hill. Taken: $60.

C. Black Bart takes the train from Sacramento to Reno and stays a couple of days. He rides back to Sacramento before moving on to San Francisco, where he is eventually arrested. A. The first bits of Black Bart’s doggerel verse are scribbled on a way bill taken from a Wells Fargo box. The poem is left at the site of robbery number four.

B. After being wounded during robbery number 29, also the site of his first holdup, Black Bart makes his way on foot to Sacramento.

The Great Stage Robberies

2. December 28, 1875, Yuba County North San Juan to Marysville, California, stage Taken: Small undetermined amount of cash. 3. June 2, 1876, Siskiyou County A nighttime robbery on the Roseburg, Oregon, to Yreka, California, route. Taken: $80 and an unknown amount from mail sacks. 4. August 3, 1877, Sonoma County Between Fort Ross and Duncan Mills, on the Russian River. Taken: $300 in gold coins and a check for $305. Poem: First poem discovered. 5. July 25, 1878, Butte County The Quincy to Oroville, California, stage. Taken: $379 in coins, a $200 diamond ring, $25 silver watch and cash from mail sacks. Poem: Second poem found (printed on opposite page). 6. July 30, 1878, Plumas County The stage from LaPorte to Oroville, California. Taken: $50 in gold nuggets, a silver watch and money from mail sacks. t r u e

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20. December 15, 1881, Yuba County The Downieville to Marysville, California, stage. Taken: Wells Fargo reports “small loss.” 21. December 27, 1881, Nevada County The North San Juan to Smartsville, California, stage. Taken: Wells Fargo reports a small loss.

– True WesT map by Gus Walker –

1. July 26, 1875, Calaveras County Four miles from Copperopolis, California, Charles E. Boles robs the stagecoach en route to Milton. Taken: $160 in gold notes and the contents of a U.S. Mail pouch.

19. October 11, 1881, Shasta County The Alturas to Redding, California, stage stops at Montgomery Creek to make a harness repair and is robbed again. Taken: Undisclosed.

7. October 2, 1878, Mendocino County The Cahto to Ukiah, California, stage. Taken: $40 and mail sack contents. 8. October 3, 1878, Mendocino County The stage from Covelo to Ukiah, California. Taken: Undisclosed amount. 9. June 21, 1879, Butte County The Forbestown to Oroville, California, stage. Taken: Undisclosed amount. 10. October 25, 1879, Shasta County A nighttime robbery on the Roseburg, Oregon, to Yreka-Redding, California, stage. Taken: Undisclosed amount from Wells Fargo and $1,400 from mail pouches. 11. October 27, 1879, Shasta County The Alturas to Redding, California, stage. Taken: Undetermined. 12. July 22, 1880, Sonoma County The stage from Point Arena to Duncan Mills, California. Taken: Undetermined amount. Whether the robber was Black Bart remains a point of contention to this day. 13. September 1, 1880, Shasta County The Weaverville to Redding, California, stage. Taken: A little more than $100.

22. January 26, 1882, Mendocino County The stage from Ukiah to Cloverdale, California. Taken: Unknown. 23. June 14, 1882, Mendocino County The Willits to Ukiah, California, stage. Taken: Estimated $300 and mail sack contents. 24. July 13, 1882, Plumas County Black Bart is foiled by shotgun blasts when he attempts to rob the LaPorte to Oroville, California, stage once more. (A buckshot pellet creases the robber’s forehead, leaving a deep scar.) 25. September 17, 1882, Shasta County The second robbery of the Yreka to Redding, California, stage at Bass Hill. Taken: Thirty-five cents from Wells Fargo. 26. November 23, 1882, Sonoma County The Lakeport to Cloverdale, California, stage, robbed six miles from Cloverdale. Taken: $475 and several mail sacks. 27. April 12, 1883, Sonoma County Again, the Lakeport to Cloverdale, California, stage. Taken: $32.50 and mail sack contents. 28. June 23, 1883, Amador County The stage from Jackson to Lone, California. Taken: $750 and mail sack contents. 29. November 3, 1883, Calaveras County The Sonora to Milton, California, stage is stopped at the site of the first Black Bart holdup in 1875. Taken: Possibly $4,764.

Where He Got the Name

Legendary Poetry

Aftermath: Odds & Ends

The infamous robber refused to acknowledge that his real name was Charles E. Boles and served his prison term as Charles E. Bolton. As for the nom de plume “Black Bart,” Boles admitted he got the name from a character in William Henry Rhodes’ “The Case of Summerfield,” an 1871 serial that ran in the Sacramento Union. Boles admitted, “when I was casting around for a pseudonym, the name just popped into my head.”

Although Black Bart only leaves two poems at the scenes of his robberies, they contribute to his legendary fame. Some described them as “doggerel,” but one thing is certain: He had an excellent sense of humor.

On November 17, 1883, Charles Bolton, alias Black Bart, pleaded guilty to a single charge of robbery and was sentenced to a remarkably light term of six years in San Quentin. With time off for good behavior, he was released after serving four years and two months.

Here I lay me down to sleep To wait the coming morrow Perhaps success perhaps defeat and everlasting sorrow. Let come what will. I’ll try it on My condition can’t be worse, But if there’s money on the box, It’s munny in my purse. —Black Bart, the P o 8.

4 Yosemite Road Many of Black Bart’s exploits occurred just along the western edge of what is now Yosemite National Park. This early photograph by George Fiske shows a horse and buggy near a shack overlooking Yosemite Valley. This road is perhaps indicative of the type used, and exploited, by Black Bart.

The newspapers had a field day charging that Black Bart made a deal with the officers in exchange for the stolen gold. Harry Morse suffered the harshest criticism, as the papers questioned his version of the arrest and insisted that an informant had actually led Morse to Bart. One paper, The San Francisco Examiner, even questioned whether Boles was Bart.

Wells Fargo paid Morse and Calaveras County Sheriff Ben Thorn the bulk of the $800 reward. Then Thorn and Morse got into a public spat, accusing each other of malfeasance in the case. Thorn got the final salvo when he publicly reminded Morse of his bragging about an extra-marital affair during their ride from San Andreas to recover the stolen gold. It was a low blow from Thorn, but it worked. Morse never responded.

– True WesT Archives –

Reason McConnell was driving a “mud wagon,” like this one, on Funk Hill. It had wider wheels for better traction in the mountains and foothills of California and Oregon. – True WesT Archives –

Black Bart was released from prison in January of 1888. By mid-year, he was back in the news after three more stage holdups, in which Black Bart was named by Jim Hume as the main suspect. Boles disappeared for good. Even his long suffering wife never heard from him again.

Recommended: Black Bart: Boulevardier Bandit by George Hoeper, published by Word Dancer Press; and Lawman: The Life and Times of Harry Morse, 1835-1912 by John Boessenecker, published by University of Oklahoma Press.

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U N S U NG BY S U S A N S C H U LT E N

LITTLE KNOWN CHARACTERS OF THE OLD WEST

A Mapmaker’s Tragic End Gouverneur Warren made the first reliable and comprehensive map of the U.S. west of the Mississippi. Despite his heroic act at Gettysburg, illustrated here, Gouverneur Warren left Civil War service humiliated. Union Maj. Gen. Philip Sheridan relieved Warren of his command for moving too slowly at the 1865 battles of White Oak Road and Five Forks. Warren died just before a court of inquiry found Sheridan’s move unjustified. – COURTESY LIBRARY OF CONGRESS –

I

n March 1853, Congress appropriated funding for four surveys of potential railroad routes throughout the American West. The surveys constitute one of the most impressive feats of geographical science in 19th-century America. The reports also contained one of the first detailed maps of the entire West, Lt. Gouverneur Kemble Warren’s “Map of the Territory of the United States from the Mississippi to the Pacific Ocean.” Upon graduating from the U.S. Military Academy at West Point in 1850, Warren joined the Corps of Topographical Engineers. He conducted most of his work in 1854, which allowed him to benefit from the extensive reconnaissance knowledge gained from the railroad surveys, as well as his own expeditions through Dakota Territory. The cartographer reconciled conflicting accounts and synthesized disparate geographical information into a single comprehensive view.

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Warren took pains to list the dozens of “authorities” who revealed the topography of the West over time, beginning his list with Meriwether Lewis and William Clark, the first agents of the new nation in the American West, rather than with Aaron Arrowsmith, whose British map of the West was the most reliable to that point. Warren’s map was a history of official geographical knowledge undertaken in the field, making his map unprecedented. Yet for all his attention to the genealogy of exploration, Warren downplayed American Indian knowledge, even when his “authorities” relied on it. Such practice was typical. The map of the Missouri Basin that Arrowsmith created incorporated uncredited details drawn by Blackfoot Chief Ackomokki. Between 1869 and 1879, the federal government mounted more surveys of its Western lands, undertaken by Clarence King, John Wesley Powell, Ferdinand Hayden and

George Wheeler. The latter was so taken with the history of mapping that he reprinted Warren’s memoir from the 1850s. Warren and Wheeler’s reports were a crash course in discovery and exploration through maps, a territorial inventory of American history. Prior to 1850, this awareness of past geographical knowledge as relevant to the nation’s future did not exist. During the Civil War, Warren created battle maps, particularly of the Gettysburg campaign. Initially a lieutenant colonel for the Union, Warren had risen to the rank of major general after his heroic efforts during Gettysburg. As chief engineer, he initiated a last-minute defense of Little Round Top that rescued an undefended left flank of the Union Army from certain attack by Confederates. He came into conflict with Philip Sheridan when the major general humiliated Warren by removing him from command in 1865. After the war, Warren engaged in civil engineering projects. He fought to clear his name with the military and was exonerated from any wrongdoing in 1882, the year he died, at the age of 52. Susan Schulten, professor of history at the University of Denver, is the author of Mapping the Nation: History and Cartography in Nineteenth-Century America. This is an edited excerpt from her book.

Secretary of State Jefferson Davis ordered the creation of a map of the U.S. territory from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean (right), which Gouverneur Kemble Warren delivered while he accompanied railroad route explorations in the 1850s. The cartographer found more fame in the Civil War, and he is shown above (fifth from left, in front of the flag) with his Union troops at the 5th Army Corps headquarters in 1864. –WARREN MAP COURTESY LIBRARY OF CONGRESS; WARREN PHOTO COURTESY HERITAGE AUCTIONS, JUNE 7, 2014 –

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5 President Tours

Yellowstone

In the fall of 1872, Ferdinand V. Hayden’s survey members reached the Snake River, below the mouth of Gros Ventre Creek. President Chester Arthur is shown with his party, crossing the Gros Ventre River in Yellowstone, 11 years later. His extensive overland march, mostly on horseback, marked the first visit by a U.S. President to Yellowstone National Park. – COURTESY LIBRARY OF CONGRESS –

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Follow the Yellow Brick Road Gold paved the path to geological explorations of the frontier West.

After California conducted a state geological survey, in the midst of the Civil War, mind you, In the summer of 1833, Joseph Rutherford Walker the federal government saw the war conclude found himself guiding yet another expedition into with an increase in demand for national the wilderness West. But this time, his approach to resources. For the first time ever, Congress, 150 years ago, on March 2, 1867, authorized Western the Sierra Nevada via a Carson River route would explorations that focused on geology. become world famous as part of the California Trail, the primary route emigrants traveled to reach the gold fields, after James W. Marshall’s nugget discovery in 1848 inspired a gold rush.

The Hayden, King, Powell and Wheeler surveys took to the field to conduct what history has dubbed the “Four Great Surveys of the West.”

California’s gold rush encouraged states to explore their own mineral wealth in geological surveys. By 1859, for the first time ever, industrial wealth exceeded the value of agricultural products. Farmers had better chances of making money as miners. Colorado found gold that year, while Nevada’s Comstock Lode struck silver.

Once Clarence King became the first director of the U.S. Geological Survey in 1879, he remarked how the year 1867 had been “a turning point, when the science ceased to be dragged in the dust of rapid exploration and took a commanding position in the professional work of the country.” —Meghan Saar

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BY KATE RULAND-THORNE

A Man of Many Firsts Joseph Rutherford Walker blazed trails in the nation’s first government surveys. To describe Joseph Rutherford Walker as a typical frontiersman would be to label Abraham Lincoln a typical president. Walker was a man of many firsts: The first to guide a government survey party assigned to map the Santa Fe Trail; the first to find a navigable route over the Sierra Nevada Mountains to California; the first to lead an emigrant train over that route; the first white man to set eyes on the Yosemite Valley; and the first to discover the gold that initiated Arizona as a territory in 1863. During his lifetime, Walker was more sought after as a guide than Jedediah Smith, Bill Williams, Joe Meek, Jim Bridger, Ewing Young or Kit Carson. People under the leadership of those guides often lost their lives. Anyone who traveled with Joe Walker survived, a claim no one else could make. Meek once admitted that “to accompany [Walker] on an expedition put a feather in a man’s cap.” The collective opinion of his fellow frontiersmen agreed: “...[Walker] didn’t follow trails, but rather made them.” Walker was born in Roane County, Tennessee, on December 13, 1798. His father fought in the Revolutionary War and was a member of George Washington’s famous spy ring. Walker and his six siblings grew up among surveyors, war heroes and special government service agents. In 1803, when Walker was four years old, President Thomas Jefferson purchased Louisiana Territory from France and sent Meriwether Lewis and William Clark on their famous expedition. This glorious event fired the young Walker’s imagination and inspired his lifelong yearning to participate in America’s Westward Expansion. At the age of 15, Walker, some members of his family and his kinsman Sam Houston joined the Tennessee Volunteer Mounted Gunmen, organized by Maj. Gen. Andrew Jackson. They participated in the Battle of Horseshoe Bend on March 27, 1814, a decisive defeat for the Red Sticks, a force of Creek Indians initially organized by the great Shawnee leader Tec*mseh. By January 1815, Jackson and his army of roughly 4,700 soldiers, including his Tennessee militia, had defeated the British following the Battle of New Orleans. These victories added to

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Jackson’s reputation when he campaigned for President in 1825 and again in 1828, when he finally won by popular vote. Walker and other members of his clan forged a bond with the future president that lasted until Jackson died in 1845. When Americans entered the highly lucrative fur trade, some of the best, untapped fur-trapping areas were located in the Spanish Southwest. The few trappers who ventured there were imprisoned or executed, and their furs confiscated. After Mexico declared independence from Spain in 1821, William Becknell blazed the Santa Fe Trail, with five others, including Walker. Becknell expedited the sale of his trade goods at an astonishing profit. By early spring 1822, he was on his way back to Santa Fe, in what ultimately became New Mexico Territory, with three full wagonloads and 21 men, including Ewing Young and William Wolfskill. Luckily for Becknell, Walker had stayed behind to trap beaver. Becknell spent weeks struggling to find a passable route for his wagons through the mountains, until he ran into Walker near the Arkansas River. With Walker’s help, he found a wagon route near the Cimarron River. For this discovery, Becknell has gone down in history as the “Father of the Santa Fe Trail,” an impossible success without his friend Walker. Years later, Walker’s modest comment about the event was, “I helped him [Becknell] break the crust.” For the next few years, Walker and his Mountain Men friends became known as the Taos Trappers. They well understood how attention to the smallest details meant survival. Thirty years after having passed a place in his earlier travels, Walker still remembered where he could find water, game and forage. In 1825, Walker set off to guide the first U.S. Government survey of the Santa Fe Trail. Upon the guide’s return to Fort Osage, Missouri, the governor asked Walker to select a site for a new town. Walker named the new town Independence and agreed to serve as Jackson County’s first sheriff. Walker’s calm but firm demeanor commanded such respect that not one murder was committed during his two terms in office. One of his duties as sheriff was to watch out for runaway slaves and indentured servants. A 16-year-old apprentice by the name of Christopher Carson was just such a runaway. Walker took a liking to the lad. Rather than returning Carson to his master, who advertised a one-penny reward for him, Walker put him in the care of his Taos trapper friends. Wolfskill hired Carson to take care of his horses, nicknamed the boy Kit and eventually taught him to become a first-rate

Not one man lost his life under the leadership of the frontier trail-blazing guide Joseph Rutherford Walker, photographed here, circa 1860, by Mathew Brady. – True WesT Archives –

6 Sluicing for Gold trapper. Walker, Wolfskill and Carson remained lifelong friends. In 1830, Walker answered a summons from his cousin Sam Houston to come to Fort Gibson, Oklahoma. There, Houston introduced Walker to Capt. Benjamin Louis Eulalie de Bonneville, who had been assigned by President Jackson to launch a fur trading expedition privately financed by John Jacob Astor. Historians believe that the true purpose of the mission, however, was to locate a navigable route over the Sierra Nevada Mountains to California and assess the strength of the Mexican armies stationed there. Bonneville wanted Walker to guide the venture. In May 1832, a lavishly outfitted brigade of 110 men left Fort Osage, Missouri, equipped with 20 supply wagons and four horses per man. Walker recruited 40 trappers excited about the venture and anxious to explore the little known Pacific Coast. For the next two years, Walker’s entourage endured incredible hardships, including Indian attacks, near starvation and treacherous descents through the freezing snow of the Sierra Nevada Mountains. In the process, they lost 24 horses, 17 of which provided food for the starving men. But despite their numerous near death experiences, not one of Walker’s men lost his life. When the Walker Party emerged from those treacherous mountains, they looked down upon the Yosemite Valley, the first white men to see it. The Walker party took a different route home by working their way through the San Joaquin Valley. They found a low-

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William Henry Jackson captured for posterity these Colorado miners sluicing for gold in Boren’s Gulch during the 1875 survey under Ferdinand V. Hayden. – COURTESY NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION –

lying pass through the mountains near the Kern River, later named Walker Pass. Walker would guide the first successful wagon train to California over this route in 1833. He would use the southern portion of Walker Pass 10 years later, while leading John C. Frémont’s expedition. Walker reunited with Bonneville in time for the 1835 Mountain Man rendezvous near the Green River in modern-day Wyoming. Two years later, fashion turned to silk hats, and the fur trade died out. From 1844 to 1846, Walker served as a guide for Frémont’s second and third expeditions to California. Frémont was the only man Walker ever disdained. “Morally and physically [he] was the most complete coward I ever knew..,” Walker noted. After America’s defeat of the Mexicans in 1848, Walker settled down to ranching in the Monterey area of California and later in Contra Costa County, where most of his family had migrated by the 1850s. He remained in demand as a guide for both government and private expeditions. Walker was 62 years old in 1861, yet retained the energy and vitality of his youth. For 20 years, he had wanted to explore the southern

region of New Mexico Territory (consisting today of Arizona and the southern tip of Nevada), but the region, considered Terra Incognita, was at the mercy of the fierce Apaches. When friends approached him about leading a prospecting party to look for gold there, Walker didn’t hesitate, despite the fact that he was going blind. Of the numerous discoveries and expeditions in which Walker participated, this adventure would stand out as his most memorable...and as his last. By the spring of 1863, the Walker Party found the gold they had been looking for in north central Arizona. Their discovery would bring about the creation of Arizona Territory and the founding of the city of Prescott. Walker spent his last years living with his nephew in Ygnacio Valley, California. He died October 27, 1876, at the age of 77, and he was buried in Alhambra Cemetery in

Martinez. His name survives today on Walker Pass, Walker Lake, Walker River, Walker Valley, Walker Gulch, Walker Canyon, Walker Creek, Walker Trail, Walker Peak, Walker Mining District, Walker, Arizona, and Walker, California. Kate Ruland-Thorne became fascinated with Joseph Rutherford Walker while researching her book, Gold, Greed & Glory, sharing the territorial history of Arizona.

7 California Gold Rush Miners These fortune hunters, photographed by Robert Vance, circa 1850s, traveled on the California Trail blazed by Joseph Rutherford Walker in hopes of striking gold. – COURTESY HERITAGE AUCTIONS, MAY 21, 2011 –

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BY THOMAS P. HUBER

Hayden’s Hallowed Expedition The 150th anniversary of the birth of the American West’s four major surveys. Tracking back 150 years ago, the Hayden Survey had humble beginnings, starting with the unpromising early life of its leader. Ferdinand Vandeveer Hayden was born into an unstable family and was most likely illegitimate. His father was an alcoholic, and his early years were lived in relative poverty. He got his first lucky break when his mother sent him to live with relatives in Ohio. Here, he had a supportive aunt and uncle who provided guidance and encouraged his education. He also was introduced to the world of science when he enrolled in nearby Oberlin College in 1845.

An intensely ambitious youth, Hayden was determined to “make something of himself.” During this early period, he began to hone his skills in lobbying and self-promotion— abilities that he learned well. His first major act of selfpromotion was to meet John Newberry while he was still at Oberlin. Newberry was a locally prominent scientist whose connections would be the motivating force for Hayden’s scientific career. Newberry introduced Hayden to Dr. James Hall, who was influential in getting Hayden into medical school in Albany, New York, after he had graduated from Oberlin. With few exceptions during the mid-19th century (the Sheffield Scientific School being one), medical school was the only formal science training available. Hayden graduated from Albany in the spring of 1853 , but he never wanted to practice medicine; he wanted to be a geologist and participate in the discovery and exploration of natural phenomena. Hall, a renowned geologist, had an abiding interest in the West and hired Hayden to conduct fieldwork that summer of 1853 as an assistant to Fielding Bradford Meek,

8 Master of Reconnaissance Revered as a master of reconnaissance in the Upper Missouri Country, Ferdinand V. Hayden earned respect as the leader behind America’s first federally-funded survey into Yellowstone, where this photograph of him was taken. The U.S. government sent out four surveys to explore the American West’s geological characteristics and mineral wealth. – COURTESY USGS –

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9 Finding Peace in Yellowstone Hayden’s lengthy report detailing the Yellowstone region, accompanied by William Henry Jackson’s photographs and sketches and paintings by Thomas Moran (photographed here by Jackson in 1871), encouraged Congress to call for the establishment of a national park at the headwaters of the Yellowstone River. – All photos Courtesy NAtioNAl pArk serviCe uNless otherwise Noted –

working in the badlands of the southwestern Dakotas to study the geology and collect thousands of fossil plants and animals. That summer solidified in Hayden’s mind what he would do for the remainder of his life. He was starting on his quest to “become somebody.” Hayden spent the next two years in individual field study in the upper Missouri River Basin, including along the upper Yellowstone River. In 1856–57, he joined Gouverneur K. Warren’s expedition to Nebraska. This work provided valuable lessons for Hayden—not the least of which was that he bristled under the command of another leader. Hayden made an unconscious vow never to be an assistant again. He wanted scientific autonomy and administrative control of his work. In the summer of 1859, Hayden worked with Capt. William F. Raynolds in the upper Yellowstone. He spent the next few years in Washington, DC, where he wrote up and published his early work. He was starting to make a scientific name for himself. In October 1862, Hayden enlisted in the U.S. Army and went to work as a military surgeon. He performed well, but rankled under the supervision of others—a trait that he exhibited during his entire life. He left the Army after Appomattox and was appointed, in 1865, an auxiliary professor of geology at the University of Pennsylvania. The job did not keep him in Philadelphia for long. He arranged his academic schedule to enable him to head west the next field season. The year 1867 saw the birth of the four major surveys of Western geology and geography, funded by the U.S. government and designed to study different parts of the West and for different ends. The Hayden Survey was the largest, most prolific and well-funded of all four. Hayden lobbied hard for and received the head geologist position for a survey of the new state of Nebraska. The government allocated $5,000 for the entire summer’s work, and his letter of appointment said he should locate and evaluate “all beds, veins, and other deposits of ores, coals, clays, marls,

and peats” and “[Nebraska’s] soil, subsoils and [provide a] description of their adaptability to particular crops, and the best methods of preserving and increasing their fertility.” This was a tall order, especially because he could not get started until June 18—a waste of nearly two months of field time. These funding delays proved a constant irritant to all of the surveys every year. Congress often did not complete appropriations until May, leaving each survey wondering when or if members could start their work for that season. Hayden spent most of the 1867 and 1868 field seasons in Nebraska, with some time in Wyoming and brief forays into Colorado. He went on a whirlwind geologic reconnaissance of Colorado in 1869. His written description of this trip, in the Annual Report for 1867–69, reads like a travelogue from an arm-waving geologist talking from a fast-moving train through the landscape. His brief trek through Colorado, however, set the stage for the much more rigorous and organized survey of the territory prior to Colorado becoming a state on August 1, 1876. Much of the intervening time between Hayden’s first tentative work in Colorado and the start of his major work there in 1873 was spent in Wyoming, especially surveying the greater Yellowstone ecosystem, including the Grand Tetons and the future Yellowstone National Park. Hayden did not “discover” Yellowstone and its environs, but his survey’s work there made a huge impression back East. His 1871 field season results went far in promoting Yellowstone as the site for the first national park in U.S. history. By March 1, 1872, Congress had passed the Yellowstone Park Act, and Hayden was readying for his second field season there. After the stunning successes of his Wyoming expeditions, after the majestic paintings of the Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone River by survey artist Thomas Moran, after the designation of Yellowstone as a national park, Hayden abruptly changed locales. He decided that Colorado was the next best

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Leaders of the Great Geological Surveys of the West 10

Ferdinand V. Hayden (Survey: 1867-79)

Clarence King (Survey: 1867–78)

11 John

Wesley Powell (Survey: 1869–79), standing next to Taugu, a Paiute chief

place to concentrate his efforts. He wrote: “The prospect of [Colorado’s] rapid development within the next five years, by some of the most important railroads of the West, renders it very desirable that its resources be made known to the world at as early a date as possible.” This long-term, meticulous survey went down in history as the only one of a single state or territory explored in such depth. The scientific research done here made Colorado the most intensively studied place in the entire West, with the possible exception of California. The Atlas of Colorado that Hayden’s survey produced lifted up Colorado as the envy of every other state or territory and many foreign governments. Although the Colorado atlas was not published until 1877, maps from Hayden’s tour de force of geographical efforts made their way to our nation’s first world’s fair, the 1876 Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia. His survey offered much more than a geological or geographical description of Colorado and the West. Hayden and his scientists and topographers looked at the land in all its varied facets. They described water resources, energy potential, agricultural promise, tourism attraction and esoteric natural history phenomena. They mapped the land and gave shape to many a dream. Thomas P. Huber is a professor of geography and environmental studies at the University of Colorado at Colorado Springs. This is an edited excerpt from Hayden’s Landscapes Revisited: The Drawings of the Great Colorado Survey written by Huber and published by University Press of Colorado in 2016.

Located in today’s Gunnison National Forest, Italian Mountain was among the sketches by William Henry Holmes of Hayden’s survey in Colorado Territory.

12 George M. Wheeler (Survey: 1869–79),

wearing black hat, seated in center

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– PUBLISHED IN HAYDEN’S ANNUAL REPORT FOR 1873 FIELD SEASON –

13 Dwarfed by Garden of the Gods This William Henry Jackson photograph of horseback members of the Hayden Survey at Cathedral Spires may be the first photograph ever taken of the Garden of the Gods in Colorado Territory. – COURTESY USGS –

14 Climbing Jupiter Terrace William Henry Jackson photographed artist Thomas Moran climbing the terraces of Mammoth Hot Springs (below), an experience that inspired his sketch of figures exploring Jupiter Terrace (inset). – JACKSON PHOTO COURTESY BUFFALO BILL CENTER OF THE WEST ON LOAN FROM DR. ROBERT ENTEEN; MORAN SKETCH TRUE WEST ARCHIVES –

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17 Iconic Cameraman When Ferdinand V. Hayden discovered William Henry Jackson’s photographs for the Union Pacific, he asked Jackson to join his geological survey to explore the Yellowstone River region. Starting with the 1871 survey, Jackson traveled to breathtaking sites, including Glacier Point in Yosemite, captured in this iconic photograph of Jackson with his camera (opposite page). – TRUE WEST ARCHIVES –

15 Measuring Distance

The Hayden Survey used this mule-drawn odometer, photographed by William Henry Jackson in 1871, to get approximate distances over long traverses. For the 1873 exploration of Colorado, Hayden divided the territory into northern, middle and southern regions, and assigned an expedition party to survey each area. – COURTESY USGS –

16 Mesmerized by Ancient Ruins One of the first photographs of Colorado’s Mesa Verde ruins show Capt. John Moss and Ernest Ingersoll in the Canyon of the Mancos, photographed by William Henry Jackson in 1874 for the Hayden Survey. – COURTESY LIBRARY OF CONGRESS –

Mountain Men with Cameras

Many of the most exceptional and aweinspiring views of the American West came from pioneer photographers of all sorts—whether they were documenting official government expeditions, akin to Ferdinand V. Hayden’s, or photographing privatelyfunded explorations, like some of John C. Frémont’s. Some set off on their own, these brave adventurers, equipped with their image-making tools and a fervent desire to capture, for generations to come, the dangerously wild and largely unseen frontier explored by them firsthand. Just like the Mountain Men proved instrumental in opening up emigrant trails to the far west, all of these pioneer photographers blazed trails with their cameras to bring this Great Frontier to life. —Meghan Saar

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18 Earliest Known Image of an Indian Camp Solomon Nunes Carvalho made this daguerreotype of a Plains Indian village in present-day Colorado in 1853, during John C. Frémont’s fifth expedition. After passing through the Rocky Mountains and Sierra Nevada Mountains, Frémont believed a railroad line along the 38th Parallel was feasible. – COURTESY LIBRARY OF CONGRESS –

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19 Early California Gold Rush View Charles Leander Weed was a New Yorker who trekked to the gold fields in California, most likely on the trail blazed by Joseph Rutherford Walker, and became a camera operator at George J. Watson’s studio in Sacramento. He took this photograph of Forest Hill, along the gold-bearing American River, around 1858. – TRUE WEST ARCHIVES –

21 Inspired by Hayden’s Cripple Creek Before the gold discovery in 1890, the “only publication concerning the geology of the Cripple Creek area” was the 1873 survey by Ferdinand V. Hayden, wrote Whitman Cross, adding how the volcanic area south of Pikes Peak referenced in the report was likely Cripple Creek. While mapping the Pikes Peak district in the summer of 1893 for the U.S. Geological Survey, Cross and his team spent about 10 days in the Cripple Creek region. This 1893 photo of a geological party on its way to map the Cripple Creek mining district is probably of them. The next year, Cross extensively surveyed Cripple Creek. – COURTESY NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION –

22 Man on the Ledge Originally hired as a boatman for John Wesley Powell’s second expedition down the Colorado River, from 1871-1872, John K. Hillers ended up assisting expedition photographer James Fennemore. Hillers sits in the ledge of this photo of the Grand Canyon, taken in April 1872. – COURTESY LIBRARY OF CONGRESS –

20 Dangling in Yosemite Sitting precariously on the edge of Contemplation Rock, at Yosemite’s Glacier Point in 1872, Eadweard Muybridge overlooks one of the greatest views in the world. – COURTESY COLLECTION OF CALIFORNIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY –

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23 Sketching the Ruins In 1873, during George Wheeler’s government-funded expedition, artist Alexander Helwig Wyant sketched the ruins of Cañon de Chelly in Arizona Territory, which photographer Timothy H. O’Sullivan captured for generations to witness. After he suffered a stroke during the survey that paralyzed his right arm, Wyant switched to painting with his left hand, which gave his later artworks an abstract look. – COURTESY LIBRARY OF CONGRESS –

24 Boats for the Colorado

During Robert Brewster Stanton’s survey of the Colorado River, 1889-1890, on behalf of the Denver, Colorado Canyon and Pacific Railroad, this glorious photograph was taken of an overland caravan laden with boats. – COURTESY NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION –

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25 Relaxing on the Green Powell Survey ethnologist James C. Pilling smokes his pipe along Colorado’s Green River, at the Gate of Lodore, in this 1874 photograph by John K. Hillers. – COURTESY LIBRARY OF CONGRESS –

26 Married to the Mountains Photographed by John K. Hillers, this rare 1874 view of a Uinta Ute warrior and his bride showcases the couple in their valley homeland, along the western slope of the Wasatch Mountains, in Utah Territory. – COURTESY LIBRARY OF CONGRESS –

28 Farming Along Lake Mona 27 Earthquake Camp After the Hayden Survey members felt shocks of earthquake at this site near Steamboat Point, on the east side of Yellowstone Lake, on the night of August 19, 1871, William Henry Jackson took this photograph of their “Earthquake camp.”

In 1872, during the Wheeler Expedition, William Bell captured this view of civilization in Utah Territory, an artificial lake for irrigation, Lake Mona. – COURTESY LIBRARY OF CONGRESS –

– COURTESY YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK –

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29 In the

Mariposa Grove Galen Clark and Milton Mann discovered the Mariposa Grove, which they named after Mariposa County, California, in 1857. Sometime in the 1860s, Carleton E. Watkins captured this view of folks posing inside one of the giant sequoias. These may be survey members exploring Yosemite for the California Geological Survey. – COURTESY LIBRARY OF CONGRESS –

30 Where Gold Turned into Silver Nevada’s gold-rich town that ushered in the first major silver discovery in the U.S., the Comstock Lode, Gold Hill was preserved in its 1867 state by Timothy H. O’Sullivan, during Clarence King’s geological exploration of the 40th Parallel. The photographer’s portable developing box appears in the lower left corner of this view overlooking this historic town that can still be accessed by train from its more famous neighbor, Virginia City.

31 Darkroom in a Great Frontier

During the Hayden Survey, William Henry Jackson developed his photographs of the great frontier in a darkroom tent, which he stands next to in this image. You can see by the tent’s small size why he had to crawl in on his hands and knees to process his glass negatives. – TRUE WEST ARCHIVES –

– COURTESY LIBRARY OF CONGRESS –

32 Washakie

Badlands

In 1872, the last year of the King Survey organized by the War Department, photographer Timothy H. O’Sullivan turned the camera upon himself in this view of him (opposite page) seated in the Washakie Badlands of Wyoming Territory, just north of the Colorado border. – COURTESY LIBRARY OF CONGRESS –

35 First Picture of Old Faithful in Action? William Henry Jackson’s majestic photographs taken during the Hayden Survey helped convince a nation to make Yellowstone its first national park. His iconic role in history may explain why people like to believe that this 1872 photograph of his (opposite page) is the first picture of Old Faithful in eruption. It’s not. Thomas Hine, a photographer who was part of an independent military reconnaissance party organized by Lt. Gen. Philip Sheridan, photographed it first, the year before. In all fairness, Hine’s “Fire Hole Basin” view is free of people, unlike Jackson’s breathtaking image of Old Faithful shooting boiling water roughly 150 feet into the air.

33 Camp Along the Colorado George Montague Wheeler led his first expedition of the frontier West from 18691871. Photographer Timothy H. O’Sullivan framed this 1871 view of the Colorado River against the backdrop of the survey camp. – COURTESY LIBRARY OF CONGRESS –

34 Distant Early View of Apache Fort In a later Wheeler geological survey, exploring west of the 100th Meridian, Timothy H. O’Sullivan photographed Camp Apache, in 1873 Arizona Territory, two years after the site became an Apache reservation. The Apaches who lived here were forcibly marched to their new home on the San Carlos reservation by 1875. – COURTESY LIBRARY OF CONGRESS –

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– COURTESY YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK –

THE BEST OF THE WEST THE BEST OF THE WEST THE BEST OF THE WEST THE BEST OF THE WEST ■

Our 15th Annual Celebration of the Absolute Best of the West! Congratulations to our 2017 Best of the West winners! Our pictorial voyage celebrates the best earliest-known photographs of the American West frontier, along with a collectors’ roundup of rare Yellowstone expedition albertypes and last year’s best Old West-themed books, movies, firearms and Western wear. Pioneer paths of history inspired the back roads and highways that today lead you to experience the frontier in all the places featured in our Best of the West Heritage Travel Guide. Everyone honored this year has played an important role in keeping our Old West history alive, and we thank you for supporting each one’s efforts. Enjoy your exploration of the best the West has to offer you!

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THE BEST OF THE WEST THE BEST OF THE WEST THE BEST OF THE WEST THE BEST OF THE WEST ■

36 Darkroom in the Desert Tracking across the shifting sand dunes near Nevada’s Carson Sink in 1867, Timothy H. O’Sullivan’s darkroom wagon dramatizes the pioneering experience of exploration in the West’s uncharted landscapes. – TRUE WEST ARCHIVES –

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BY MEGHAN SAAR

Almost Burned: Jackson’s Rare Yellowstone Albertypes

In

the early stages of his career, William Henry Jackson, his studio borne by a mule, photographed the first views of Yellowstone. He traveled as an expedition member for Ferdinand V. Hayden’s U.S. Geological Survey in 1871 to investigate the marvels that would eventually be preserved as America’s first national park—Yellowstone. Discovered by photograph collector and San Francisco Bay resident Robert Enteen in the summer of 2015, the only complete copy of Jackson’s album from that expedition was showcased in an impressive exhibit at the Buffalo Bill Center of the West in Cody, Wyoming, in 2016. That was followed by the auction of the album, which did not meet its reserve price, at PBA Galleries in San Francisco, California, in October. The bound volume, produced in 1874, was made from Jackson’s glass plate negatives using the albertype process, a screenless, photomechanical reproduction technique developed by the Germans. This was a vast improvement from how photos were reproduced for magazines and books— copying the image to a woodcut, which diminished the original photo into a replica. Edward Bierstadt, brother of noted artist Albert, was under contract by Hayden to produce these albertype albums of Jackson’s

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37, 38

Thomas Moran Thomas Moran, the artist whose illustrations joined William Henry Jackson’s photographs in bringing the wonders of Yellowstone to the world, is featured in the album. These two images are not among the 13 rare photos.

photographs. He created the proof albums, but got no further. A disastrous fire in his studio in early 1875 destroyed most of the albertypes he had printed as well as virtually all of the original glass negatives. Worst of all? This was not his first studio fire—a gas explosion occurred four years earlier. Perhaps Hayden should have investigated more the man whom he had entrusted with such an irreplaceable treasure. Fortunately for historians, five sets of the Jackson albertypes survived the 1875 fire, yet the set discovered by Enteen contains the most unique images—76. Outside of two smaller sets, the next largest sets are at the Denver Public Library, with about 30 images, and at the Clark Art Museum in Williamstown, Massachusetts, with 56 prints. When Enteen found his rare treasure, he worked to document the album with the help of scholars at the Buffalo Bill Center of the West and particularly Dr. Matthew Hermes, a national authority on Yellowstone history who shared the finding in the museum’s Points West journal. “The Jackson albertypes, had they been used as originally intended, would have been the first effort to promote Yellowstone by photographs,” Hermes states. “We like to think they would have been broadly popular, the first ‘coffee table’ book perhaps.” Showcased on the following pages are the 13 rare Jackson albertypes of his foray into Yellowstone not found among the other sets.

39 The USGS En Route William Henry Jackson set up this monumental shot of the Hayden Expedition, all mounted, standing beside a lake shore that the USGS identified as Mirror Lake, at the head of Pelican Creek. Expedition leader F.V. Hayden rides second from the right. – ALL WILLIAM HENRY JACKSON PHOTOGRAPHS COURTESY PBA GALLERIES, OCTOBER 20, 2016 –

40 Tower of Rock The only vertical shot among the rare William Henry Jackson albertypes never seen before, this offers a view of a tower of breccia volcanic rock near the brink of Tower Falls on Tower Creek.

41 First Yellowstone Bridge John Baronett built this first bridge over the Yellowstone River, near the confluence of the Lamar River with the Yellowstone.

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42, 43, 44 Grand Cañon of the Yellowstone Above is a late afternoon view of the Grand Cañon of the Yellowstone, while one with oval masking, also seen from the brink of the Lower Falls, is shown top right. A different view, printed backwards in the album of albertypes, is shown bottom right.

BEST WESTERN ART COLLECTION Stark Museum of Art, Orange, TX

BEST AMERICAN INDIAN COLLECTION Plains Indian Museum, Cody, WY

BEST PIONEER HISTORY COLLECTION Boot Hill Museum, Dodge City, KS

Surrounded by the piney woods of southeast Texas is a museum housing an astoundingly impressive Western art collection, started in the 1890s by Miriam Lutcher Stark. She passed the art collecting bug on to her son, H.J., and his wife, Nelda. Neither mother nor son lived to see the opening of their art museum, in 1978, but they accomplished their goal of enriching the quality of life in southeast Texas through the arts. H.J. and Nelda’s Racers at the Pueblo oil by Oscar Edmund Berninghaus is just one of the major works by the Taos Society of Artists featured at the museum. Explorer-artists George Catlin, Alfred Jacob Miller, John Mix Stanley, Thomas Moran and Albert Bierstadt carry a strong presence at the museum. The story of the American West, expressed so vividly and accurately in art by the West’s best pioneer artists, is splashed across these walls.

You could spend days, if not weeks, exploring the amazing Old West collections at the Buffalo Bill Center of the West. But if you have only one day, anyone who desires to learn the story of the Plains Indians peoples will discover, in this museum, why these historic nomadic tribes have become such an archetype in literature and art. You never know what you might see: Sitting Bull’s trade items; Red Cloud’s shirt; clothing worn by a Lakota performer during Buffalo Bill’s Wild West shows. The most impressive Plains Indian artifacts are those collected by Paul Dyck, dating to the late 1700s to pre-1890s, a period Dyck identified as the “Buffalo Culture” era. In his final months in 2006, the Arizona collector gave the public a great gift by granting the center as the best place to preserve this largest private collection of Plains Indian art and artifacts.

How incredible that a cemetery site created for a rotary convention in 1932 would lead to a world-class pioneer history collection, showcased in replica buildings of the Front Street originals destroyed by fire in 1885. The pioneer Beeson family collected most of the artifacts, which give visitors insight into early-day families and the lives they lived on the Kansas frontier. When you step into the museum’s Long Branch Saloon, you’re stepping into Beeson history—one of the owners was Chalk Beeson, before he sold his share to the notorious Luke Short.

READERS’ CHOICE: Panhandle-Plains Historical Museum, Canyon, TX

READERS’ CHOICE: Smoki Museum, Prescott, AZ

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READERS’ CHOICE: Harold Warp Pioneer Village, Minden, NE

BEST OLD WEST COLLECTIBLES AUCTION Heritage Auctions, Dallas, TX The world’s largest collectibles auctioneer marked a milestone in 2016—more than one million online bidders. Heritage Auctions was one of the earliest to embrace mobile

million. Christie’s is one home in the East where you can still find some of the greatest wonders of the West.

READERS’ CHOICE: Coeur d’Alene Art Auction, Reno, NV technology, and its free database of more than four million prices realized have attracted collectors from all over the world. Among other history offerings, the auction house regularly holds its prestigious “Legends of the West” auction. Its 2016 sale featured historical Tombstone collectibles purchased by another of this year’s winners, Jim Melikian. Every year is somehow better than the last; we continue to be impressed by the incredible Old West finds Heritage Auctions brings to collectors.

READERS’ CHOICE: Brian Lebel’s Old West Auction, Fort Worth, TX

BEST WESTERN COLLECTIBLES GALLERY Cowboy Legacy, Scottsdale, AZ Downtown Scottsdale is that gem in the desert where cowboys go to play, and the best respite from the ranch is Bill Welch’s gallery on Main Street. You may think you have wandered into Scottsdale’s Museum of the West, right around the corner, for all the museum-quality artifacts of the 1840s through the 1940s that hang on these walls, but this shopper’s haven offers all the Old West essence that can transform your home into a frontier history lover’s dream dwelling.

Since 1966, Welch has been offering his expertise on high-end chaps and spurs, collectible saddles, bows and arrows, so browsing here under his helpful tutelage is not only fun, but also quite educational.

BEST OLD WEST FIREARMS AUCTION Rock Island Auction Company, Rock Island, IL The most expensive single firearm ever sold at auction hammered down for $1.1 million at Rock Island Auction Company’s spring sale last May. After Capt. Henry Lawton helped convince Apache leader Geronimo to surrender for good, a friend of Lawton’s, who worked for Winchester Repeating Arms, gave Lawton the Model 1886 Winchester rifle that sold at the auction. Rock Island’s auctions sell historical

BEST OLD WEST ART AUCTION Christie’s, New York, NY The auction house that has broken record sales for many of our most esteemed Old West artists, Christie’s celebrated its 250th anniversary in 2016. James Christie held his first sale across the pond, in London, in 1766. Not until 1970, though, did Christie’s hold its first sale in the United States, in Houston, Texas. Seven years later, the New York City salesroom opened. The American Art Department has since set more than 100 world records at auction, with one of its most outstanding for the master Old West artist Thomas Moran, when the hammer fell on Green River of Wyoming at $15.85 Christie’s New York holds the auction records for both Thomas Moran, William Henry Jackson’s artist counterpart on the Hayden survey, and Albert Bierstadt, brother of Edward whose proof album of Jackson’s images went up for auction in 2016. A collector purchased Bierstadt’s 1862 oil, Indians Spear Fishing (top right), for a $6.53 million bid, while Moran took the gold with a $15.85 million bid for his 1878 oil, Green River of Wyoming (right). – COURTESY CHRISTIE’S NEW YORK, MAY 21, 2008 –

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#45: The Upper Falls of Yellowstone. #46: Virginia City, Montana. #47: Rapids Above the Falls of Yellowstone. #48: Lower Falls of Yellowstone, Below Lookout Point. #49: Column Rocks, Looking North from Tower Creek. #50: Yellowstone Lake.

firearms at prices that range from affordable to record-breaking, allowing the everyman and the rich man ample opportunities to purchase guns linked to the Old West era.

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READERS’ CHOICE: A&S Auction Company, Waco, TX

BEST TREASURE HUNTING DEVICE AT Pro Metal Detector by Garrett Metal Detectors, Garland, TX

50

While diving off the Key West coast of Florida in 2008, Mike DeMar thought his metal detector had hit on a beer can; nope, nearly a pound of gold from the Santa Margarita ship that had sunk in 1622. Value: About $1 million. We all have dreams of finding fortune beneath our feet, but without the proper tool, we may just kick away that millionaire-making “beer can.” Whether you’re in the desert sands or in a shallow stream, hunt for treasure with the all-terrain AT Pro detector, made by the worldwide leader in metal detection technology.

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BEST WESTERN PAINTER Sherry Blanchard Stuart, Scottsdale, AZ Sherry Blanchard Stuart’s first word was “hoy-hoy,” which meant “horse.” She started drawing the majestic creatures long before she ever saw one in person. Although an avid horsewoman, she found the West in her artwork rather late in life, when she moved to Arizona in her 40s. She was living in a vast, empty, beautiful country—cowboy country—and on her first cattle drive, she found her calling to chronicle cowboy life. Whether she’s painting a 5th Cavalry soldier or a mountain man trading beads with Indians, the traditions of the West live again in her nostalgic portrayals of the landscape and people.

READERS’ CHOICE: Andy Thomas, Carthage, MO

BEST WESTERN MUSEUM Western Spirit: Scottsdale’s Museum of the West, Scottsdale, AZ After an impressive grand opening in 2015, the best museum of the West in the “West’s Most Western Town” showed no

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Untame your Adventurous Spirit Discover the home of Buffalo Bill and the Golden Spike Tower overlooking Bailey Yard – the world’s largest rail yard. Enjoy outdoor festivals, arts & culture, and fun for all ages. We invite you to come explore western heritage and enjoy fine hospitality in the place where east meets west.

51 Devil’s Slide North Platte/Lincoln County Visitors Bureau

VisitNorthPlatte.com • 1.800.955.4528

William Henry Jackson captured one of the surveyors sitting on a rock in front of the Devil’s Slide formation on the side of Cinnabar Mountain.

sign of slowing down in 2016. For nearly two years, art lovers got to travel with Lewis & Clark through Charles Fritz’s impressive paintings. Paintings, etchings and books gave insight into cowboy artist Will James. Saddles and spurs glistened in the A.P. Hays Gallery. The stories of friendship and conflict between mountain men, American Indians, settlers and soldiers emerged in a collection of contemporary art. A retrospective of John Coleman’s art opened in the fall. And the new year will bring us artwork by the Taos Society of Artists. Western spirit? This museum’s got it. “Worried About The Back Trail” Gouache, 12” X 10” art print $45 plus S&H

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ReadeRs’ ChoiCe: Buffalo Bill Center of the West, Cody, WY

Best Western Art GAllery C.M. Russell Museum, Great Falls, MT The C.M. Russell Museum is more than just an impressive home to the collection of the world-famous cowboy artist—the museum has preserved Charles M. Russell’s real home, a two-story frame house, along with his log cabin studio. You can span the

artist’s lifespan through the works that grace the museum’s walls and then immerse yourself in the place where he created all of it. The C.M. Russell Museum truly is a one-stop homage to the self-taught artist trademarked by his iconic buffalo skull. People love this museum so much that, in 2002, an anonymous bidder at the museum’s annual benefit auction paid $240,000 for Russell’s Waiting watercolor and then donated it to the museum. How many folks will buy a painting to keep a museum going and then donate that painting to the museum? Apparently, more than one. The trend continued as recent as 2012 with the donation of the Russell watercolor, The Bucker. Russell devotees already know this place is the best. The rest of the world should too.

ReadeRs’ ChoiCe: Whitney Western Art Museum, Cody, WY

Best Western Art ColleCtor Tim Peterson To say that Minnesotan Tim Peterson idolizes explorers Meriwether Lewis and William Clark is no small point. Art lovers

got the good fortune of seeing his collection of Charles Fritz’s masterful portrayal of the Corps of Discovery’s 1805-06 transcontinental journey, in a fabulous exhibit at Western Spirit: Scottsdale’s Museum of the West. Peterson’s collection of art portraying Mountain Men and fur traders elevated the museum into a world-class art haven. He grew up hunting, fishing and canoeing with his dad, who took him, at the age of eight, to an art gallery, where he purchased his first piece of art: Paul Calle’s Something for the Pot. This print of a mountain man, carrying his hunt of the day, kindled his passion for the frontier West.

BEST WESTERN HISTORY COLLECTOR Jim Melikian Arizona businessman Jim Melikian has been a collector most of his 61 years, but the Old West finally caught his fancy in the summer of 2016. When he opened Heritage Auctions’ catalog, “Legends of the West: The Tombstone and Arizona Territory Collection,” he thought, “This is cool, but is it rare?” He turned to experts to find out, including True West’s Bob Boze Bell and Arizona historian Jack August. Rare? Unbelievable, they told him, noting it was unprecedented to have nearly 190 lots from 1870s-80s Tombstone come up for auction at one time. Melikian bought the bulk of the collection, some of which went on display at the Arizona State Capitol. He can’t decide on his favorite. Is it the bank draft cashed the day of the shoot-out behind the O.K. Corral, or is it the petition—signed by Tombstone founder Ed Schieffelin— nominating John Brannick for Tombstone constable? Or it could be…well, he has a lot to chose from. Meghan Saar is the editor of True West and writes the magazine’s Collecting the West column. Her first auction report appeared in the November/December 2003 issue.

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BY STUART ROSEBROOK

The Past is Present

W

hen historians review the year 2016 in publishing, will they discover themes in Western history and fiction that reflected the national turmoil and tumultuous political year that preceded the quadrennial contest for the White House? I would argue that today’s authors have not—and cannot— divest themselves from the present. I believe that the best publications of novelists and historians in 2016 were consciously and subconsciously influenced by our troubled era of instantaneous information. As futurist Alvin Toffler, who died June 27, 2016, prophesied in his 1970 masterpiece Future Shock: “In our lifetime the boundaries have burst. Today the network of social ties is so tightly woven that the consequences of contemporary events radiate instantaneously around the world.… “Indeed, not only do contemporary events radiate instantaneously—now we can be said to be feeling the impact of all past events in a new way. For the past is doubling back on us. We are caught in what might be called a ‘time skip.’” Toffler was correct in writing that “the past is doubling back on us.” Paul Andrew Hutton’s The Apache Wars: The Hunt for Geronimo, the Apache Kid, and the Captive Boy Who Started the Longest War in American History

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is True West’s best book of the year, but Hutton is also True West’s best author of 2016. The University of New Mexico professor carries the Guidon for an extremely strong set of biographies and historical syntheses of

Apache Camp Arizona Territorial photographer C.S. Fly accompanied Gen. George Crook when he negotiated Geronimo’s next-to-last surrender in March 1886. Fly’s photo of a group of Chiricahua adults and children included a kidnapped white boy named Jimmy “Santiago” McKinn. The irony of McKinn’s rescue is that the 1861 kidnapping of young Felix Ward, aka Mickey Free, led to the Bascom Affair, and the 25-year war with the Chiricahua. – COURTESY LIBRARY OF CONGRESS –

our post-Civil War Western history that doubles the past back at us in 2016. Hutton’s brilliance as a historian shows in that The

Apache Wars is not politically provocative, nor does it proselytize his conclusions the wars were catalysts of political or social change. Instead, Hutton allows the facts of the Apache-American-Mexican border war to tell the story of one of the most chronicled American wars—yet, I believe, one of the least understood international wars. This war was fought with such brutality and heinous civilian and battlefield atrocities that 130 years after Geronimo’s surrender in August 1886, the modern border issues between Mexico and the United States have double-backed on both nations in what we might truly call a “time skip.” With succinctness and clarity, Hutton leaves the reader of The Apache Wars with a sense of ancient déjà vu. One feels that the tragedy of the Mexican-Apache-American war is not just an anecdotal conflict unique to North American history, but that in the world today it continues to manifest on a deadly, daily basis in a perverse ingemination of human behavior. Amidst the gravitas of the past year’s prose, two publishing trends of 2016 non-fiction also must be noted: “Law and Order” and American Indian History dominated the catalogues, and are reflected in separate Best of the Year categories. In Old West and modern Western fiction, novelists have continued to mine the themes of Joseph Campbell’s “hero’s journey” for inspiration, and channel William

52 View on Apache Lake Wheeler Survey photographer Timothy O’Sullivan’s images of Arizona Territory in 1873 were not limited to geologic wonders; rather, he spent quality time taking images of the men and women, soldiers and citizens, and Indian tribes along his route, including these two Apache scouts, and two Buffalo soldiers at Apache Lake in the White Mountains. – Courtesy Library of Congress –

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Shakespeare’s dramatic understanding that the flawed lives of historical characters also make the best dramatic players, whether in lead or supporting roles. Standing on the same “Best of 2016” shelf with Hutton’s The Apache Wars are five books—and five authors— who I believe are “time-skipping”—resetting the boundaries of Old West history with theses, topics and biographies that are accessible and relevant to 21st- century readers: Peter Cozzens’ The Earth is Weeping: The Epic Story of the Indian Wars for the American West; Joe Jackson’s Black Elk: The Life of an American Visionary; John Boessenecker’s Texas Ranger: The Epic Life of Frank Hamer: The Man Who Killed Bonnie and Clyde; Ron Hansen’s The Kid; Peter H. Hassrick’s (editor) Frederick Remington: A Catalogue Raissone II; and Marian Wardle and Sarah E. Boehme (editors) Branding the American West: Paintings and Films, 1900-1950.

BEST AUTHOR AND NONFICTION BOOK OF THE YEAR The Apache Wars: The Hunt for Geronimo, the Apache Kid, and the Captive Boy Who Started the Longest War in American History by Paul Andrew Hutton (Crown)

The strength of Professor Paul Andrew Hutton’s The Apache Wars is that it is both the new baseline synthesis for students and historians of U.S.-Apache history and those researching and analyzing the geo-political history, and the present-day multi-national international border wars.

BEST OF THE REST: 1 Frontier: Eternity Street: Violence and Justice in Frontier Los Angeles by John Mack Faragher (WW Norton) 2 Fur Trade: Hugh Glass: Grizzly Survivor by James D. McLaird (South Dakota Historical Society Press) 3 Indian Wars: Powder River: Disastrous Opening of the Great Sioux War by Paul L. Hedren (University of Oklahoma Press) 4 Military: Fighting for Uncle Sam: Buffalo Soldiers in the Frontier Army by John P. Langillier (Schiffer Military History) 5 Women/Minorities: Sweet Freedom’s Plains: African Americans on the Overland Trails, 1841-1869 by Shirley Ann Wilson Moore (University of Oklahoma Press)

BEST BIOGRAPHY Black Elk: The Life of an American Visionary by Joe Jackson (Farrar, Straus and Giroux) With access to family members of Lakota spiritual leader Black Elk, investigative journalist-historian Joe Jackson’s talents as a writer, interviewer and historian are all on full-display in Black Elk, the most evocative, empathetic and comprehensive biography ever written about the Sioux holy man.

BEST OF THE REST: 1 Law and Order: Pat Garrett: The Man Behind the Badge by W.C. Jameson (Taylor Trade Publishing) 2 Indian Wars: “Hang Them All”: George Wright and the Plateau Indian War by Donald Cutler (University of Oklahoma Press) 3 Texas Rangers: Whiskey River Ranger: The Old West Life of Baz Outlaw by Bob Alexander (University of North Texas Press) 4 American Empire: Splendid Savage: The Restless Life of Frederick Russell Burnham by Steve Kemper (WW Norton) 5 Women: Wealth Woman: Kate Carmack and the Klondike Race for Gold by Deb Vanasse (The University of Alaska Press)

53 Survey Camp Photographers Timothy O’Sullivan and William Bell chronicled First Lieutenant George H. Wheeler’s 1871 to 1873 survey of the 100th Meridian. In 1873, O’Sullivan was on his second tour when the Wheeler party set up at Fort Wingate, New Mexico Territory. – COURTESY LIBRARY OF CONGRESS –

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TRUE WEST AUTHOR PROFILE

BY LEO W. BANKS

JPS Brown: An American Original At 86 years old, Arizona’s native son is still writing about the border he loves. ne day in 1937, in the bar of Tucson’s Santa Rita Hotel, the cowboy-actor Tom Mix gave seven-year-old Joe Brown a pair of buckskin chaps with “Joey” branded on them. Brown had been ill and the Hollywood star, a family friend, wanted to cheer him up. Sitting in his home in the mountains outside Patagonia, Arizona, Brown remembers that Mix was dressed for town, in a new hat, suit and shiny boots. The boy sure was grateful. But looking at the biggest movie star of the day, all he could think was that his own father, a cowboy from birth, was the real hero. “Mix wasn’t like my dad and uncles,” says Brown. “They were working cowboys and, to me, nothing else mattered.” During a lifetime of writing about cowboying in the West and in Mexico, JPS Brown has tried to close that divide between reality and myth. In his 14 short story collections and novels, including his first, Jim Kane, which became the 1972 movie Pocket Money, the author has told the truth about life in the saddle. Authenticity is Brown’s calling card. His books put trail dust in readers’ mouths. His hero is the great cowboy-writer Will James. “James made his writing about the work,” says Brown, “not drinking in town, and men with guns walking down the street, and all that stuff Hollywood loves. The work is good enough, dangerous enough and thrilling enough for anybody.” At 86, Brown is still at it. In April, he released his latest, Cowboys Fly, a book of stories that includes an account of the Mix meeting. The collection is part of a new burst of production from Make a Hand, LLC, formed in 2011 with Rick Padilla, a former creative associate to famed film director Hal Ashby. The company also launched Brown’s nonfiction book about Arizona rancher Jim Chilton’s successful lawsuit against the Center for Biological Diversity; a CD of cowboy songs produced by fivetime Grammy-winner Ray Kennedy; and an audio version of Brown’s heartbreaking 2011 novel, The Spirit of Dogie Long, about a trail crew raising an orphaned infant. Grammy-nominated voice coach Jan Smith narrates the book, and a movie version of Dogie is currently in production.

In addition to his cowboy work, Brown has been a Marine, a professional boxer in Mexico, and a movie-set wrangler who befriended Paul Newman and Lee Marvin, co-stars of Pocket Money. He taught Steve McQueen how to rope for the 1980 Western, Tom Horn. They became good friends and McQueen pulled strings to get Brown the role of the priest who presides over Horn’s hanging. In the West, we call that irony. Brown has lived more adventures than most men do in their dreams. He has struggled with drinking and has been married five times. He bought his third wife out of a Mexican whor*house for $50. She tried to kill him twice, once with poison and again by jamming a pistol in his belly and pulling the trigger. The gun misfired. When he lived in the Mexican Sierra Madre, locals called him El Mostrenco, “the unbranded one.” But his wild days ended long ago. Brown and his last wife, Patsy, were married for 39 years, until her passing in 2011. Now he spends his time telling the story of the West he has known since he was a boy in Nogales. He started riding at three and broke his first horse at 12. “I learned by watching my father,” he says. “When something’s in your blood, it’s not work. I loved everything about cowboying every day I did it.” Does that mean, like James, that Brown has done everything he’s written about? “You’re damned right,” he says with pride. “My work is one hundred percent autobiographical. That’s why I find life so tedious now, because I can’t do it anymore.” Brown, who has been recuperating from a hip replacement, gets a far-off look in his eyes and says, “What I wouldn’t give to get horseback one more time.” Editor’s Note: With his black Lab, Mikey, close by, Joe Brown still writes every day. His latest project is a screenplay that producers plan to film in Durango, Mexico. To order his latest books, go to MakeAHand.com.

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BEST AMERICAN INDIAN HISTORY The Earth is Weeping: The Epic Story of the Indian Wars for the American West by Peter Cozzens (Alfred A. Knopf) Peter Cozzens’ The Earth is Weeping is the most comprehensive history of the post-Civil War American conflicts with the Western Indian nations written to date. Cozzens’ research and conclusions will quickly become one of the favored textbooks for students of past and present Western American Indian history.

BEST OF THE REST: 1 Indian Memoir: The Life of Ten Bears: Comanche Historical Narratives, collected by Francis Joseph Attocknie, edited with an introduction by Thomas W. Kavanagh (University of Nebraska Press) 2 Military Memoir: Sign Talker: Hugh Lenox Scott Remembers Indian Country edited by R. Eli Paul (University of Oklahoma Press) 3 Indian Wars: The Terrible Indian War of the West: A History from the Whitman Massacre to Wounded Knee, 1846-1890 by Jerry Keenan (McFarland) 4 Relocation: Rivers of Sand: Creek Indian Emigration, Relocation & Ethnic Cleansing in the American South by Christopher D. Haveman (University of Nebraska Press) 5 Industrialization: The Railroad and the Pueblo Indians: The Impact of the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe on the Pueblos of the Rio Grande, 1880-1930 by Richard H. Frost (The University of Utah Press)

BEST LAW AND ORDER HISTORY Texas Ranger: The Epic Life of Frank Hamer: The Man Who Killed Bonnie and Clyde by John Boessenecker (Thomas Dunne Books) Western historians who draw a line in the sand in 1890, 1900 or even 1920, as the proverbial “End of the Old West” forgot to tell that to Texas lawman Frank Hamer, who was born in the era of steam engines in 1884 and died in the midst of the Atomic Age in 1955. Boessenecker T R U E

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proves conclusively that the tighter we tie the noose on Western history, the less we understand its importance to the present—and future—West.

BEST OF THE REST: 1 Texas Rangers: Texas Ranger Tales: Hard-Riding Stories from the Lone Star State by Mike Cox (Lone Star Books) 2 Outlaws: The Ghosts of Guerrilla Memory: How Civil War Bushwhackers Became Gunslingers in the American West by Matthew Chr istopher Hulbert (University of Georgia Press) 3 Criminal: No Hope for Heaven, No Fear of Hell: The Stafford-Townsend Feud of Colorado County, Texas, 1871-1911 by James C. Kearney, Bill Stein and James Smallwood (University of North Texas Press) 4 Law & Order: The Trial of Tom Horn by John W. Davis (University of Oklahoma Press) 5 Indian: Law at Little Big Horn: Due Process Denied by Charles E. Wright (Texas Tech University Press)

BEST FICTION The Kid: A Novel by Ron Hansen (Scribner) Nebraska native Ron Hansen’s latest novel The Kid is the fictional life story of William Henry McCarty, aka “Billy the Kid.” Hansen, a Santa Clara University English professor, who previously explored the humanity of a Western outlaw in The Assassination of Jesse James by the Coward Robert Ford, returns to the chaos of life in the West in the most poignant Billy the Kid novel to date.

BEST OF THE REST: 1 Old West: Easy Pickings by Richard S. Wheeler (Forge) 2Mystery: Jonis Agee The Bones of Paradise (William Morrow) 3 Traditional: News of the World: A Novel by Paulette Jiles (William Morrow) 4 Frontier Fiction: Picketwire Vaquero by James D. Crownover (Five Star Publishing) 5 Mass Market: Return to Red River by Johnny D. Boggs (Pinnacle)

5 C BEST HISTORICAL NON-FICTION AUTHOR Editors’ Choice • Paul Andrew Hutton Readers’ Choice • Chris Enss

BEST HISTORICAL WESTERN NOVELIST Editors’ Choice • Ron Hansen Readers’ Choice • Johnny D. Boggs

BEST WESTERN ROMANCE PUBLISHER Editors’ Choice • Bethany House, Bloomington, MN Readers’ Choice • Harlequin, Don Mills, Ontario, Canada

BEST WESTERN HISTORY BOOK PUBLISHER Editors’ Choice • The University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, OK Readers’ Choice • TwoDot/Rowman & Littlefield, New York, NY

BEST WESTERN HISTORY BOOK STORE Editors’ Choice • Guidon Books, Scottsdale, AZ Readers’ Choice • Guidon Books, Scottsdale, AZ

BEST WESTERN HISTORY UNIVERSITY PRESS Editors’ Choice • Texas A&M University Press and the Texas Book Consortium, College Station, TX, including North Texas University Press and TCU Press Readers’ Choice • University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, NE

BEST WESTERN FICTION PRESS Editors’ Choice • Five Star Publishing, Waterville, ME Readers’ Choice • Pinnacle Books, New York, NY

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BEST WESTERN MUSIC GROUP Editors’ Choice • The Cowboy Way, Albuquerque, NM Readers’ Choice • Horse Crazy Cowgirl Band, Winthrop, WA

BEST SOLO WESTERN MUSICIAN Editors’ Choice • R.W. Hampton, Cimarron, NM Readers’ Choice • Juni Fisher, Franklin, TN

More Arizona tour dates at www.GoPattyWagon.com T R U E

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54 Stream Gaging Nineteenth-century survey teams and frontier hydrologists had to be enterprising and entrepreneurial in their attempts to measure the flow of rivers and streams of the West. In 1889, a U.S. Geological Survey team placed the nation’s first stream-gaging station on the Rio Grande near Embudo, New Mexico Territory. – COURTESY NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION –

BEST CULTURAL WEST Branding the American West: Paintings and Films, 1900-1950, edited by Marian Wardle and Sarah E. Boehme (University of Oklahoma Press) The beautifully designed, well-edited and superbly written collection of essays and criticism edited by Marian Wardle and Sarah E. Boehme provides insightful and thoughtful support to the Brigham Young University Museum of Art and the Stark Museum of Art’s joint exhibition titled Branding the American West: Paintings and Films, 1900-1950.

BEST OF THE REST: 1 Biography: Rounded Up in Glory: Frank Reaugh, Texas Renaissance Man by Michael R. Grauer (University of North Texas Press) 2 Tourism: Imagining Tombstone: The Town Too Tough to Die by Kara L McCormack (University Press of Kansas) 2 Western Literature: Westerns: A Women’s History by Victoria Lamont (University of Nebraska Press) 4 Western Culture: Encyclopedia of Weird Westerns, Supernatural and Science T R U E

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Fiction Elements in Novels, Plus, Comics, Films Television and Games… by Paul Green, 2nd Edition (McFarland) 5 Modern Western Film: The New Western: Critical Essays on the Genre Since 9/11 edited by Scott F. Stoddart (McFarland)

BEST ART/ ILLUSTRATED BOOK Frederic Remington: A Catalogue Raissone II edited by Peter H. Hassrick (University of Oklahoma Press) Editor Peter H. Hassrick’s essay, “Finding the Real Frederic Remington,” sets the tone for Frederic Remington: A Catalogue Raissone II, an expertly edited collection of essays and beautifully reproduced catalogue of artwork by the most influential Western artist in history.

BEST OF THE REST: 1 Historic: American Saloons: Pre-Prohibition Photographs by Roger E. Kislingbury (REK) 2 Cultural: Photographing Custer’s Battlefield: The Images of Kenneth F. Roahen by Sandy Barnard (University of Oklahoma Press)

ROUGH DRAFTS WESTERN BOOKS ROUND-UP 2016 10 FAVORITES In 2016, Western fiction and nonfiction remained strong segments in the catalogues of national, regional and university publishers, with Mystery and Romance genres dominating sales. Ten books and authors I recommend:

FICTION: Civil War: Captain Grimes: Unreconstructed: The Gaslight Boys by John T. Wayne (Mockingbird Lane Press) Frontier: Mariano’s Choice: A Novel by David M. Jessup (Pronghorn Press) Mystery: What Gold Buys: A Silver Rush Mystery by Ann Parker (Poisoned Pen Press)

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Old West: T.H. Elkman by Eric H. Heisner (Skyhorse Publishing) 20th-Century West: Stripped Bare by Shannon Baker (Forge)

HISTORY: Biography: Rough Riders: Theodore Roosevelt: His Cowboy Regiment, and the Immortal Charge Up San Juan Hill by Mark Lee Gardner (HarperCollins) Empire & Exploration: Jefferson’s America: The President, the Purchase, and the Explorers who Transformed a Nation by Julie M. Fenster (Crown) Environment: Bitter Waters: The Struggles of the Pecos River (University of Oklahoma Press) Law & Order: Tall Tales & Half Truths of Pat Garrett by John LeMay (The History Press) Western History: The Wild West Meets the Big Apple by Michael P. O’Connor (Pelican Publishing)

—Stuart Rosebrook

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55 Mohave Indians

Bad Men, Outlaws & GunfiGhters (hard cover only)

Illustrated bios, featuring many never-before published images.

$18.95

In 1871, the Wheeler Survey went 200 miles in 30 days up the Colorado River to the Grand Canyon. Photographer Timothy O’Sullivan photographed many of the Mohave Indians, including Maiman, hired to help the surveyors’ journey up the wild river. – COURTESY NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION –

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3 Regional: Picturing Indian Territory: Portraits of the Land that Became Oklahoma, 1819-1907 edited by B. Byron Price (University of Oklahoma Press) 4 Travel: Our Indian Summer in the Far West: An Autumn Tour of Fifteen Thousand Miles in Kansas, Texas, New Mexico, Colorado, and the Indian Territory by S. Nugent Townshend (“St. Kames” of “The Field”), illustrated by J.G. Hyde, edited by Alex Hunt and Kristin Loyd (University of Oklahoma Press) 5 Cowboy Culture: Cowboys of the Waggoner Ranch photography by Jeremy Enlow, text by Jan Nichols Batts (Jeremy Enlow Fine Art Photography)

BEST WESTERN ROMANCE

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This Road We Travelled by Jane Kirkpatrick (Revell) Worldwide, Romance novels generate $1.2 billion in revenue annually. Western Romance is currently a major segment of the genre, including Amish, Bridal, Christian, Cowboy/Cowgirl, Erotic, Fantasy, Frontier, Gothic, Historical, Horror, Modern, Mystery, Outlaw, Ranching and Thriller. Jane Kirkpatrick’s This Road We Travelled showcases her talents as a Romance author and researcher, blending history with love into a heart-warming tale on the Oregon Trail.

BEST OF THE REST: 1 Thriller: Bandita Bonita and Billy the Kid: The Scourge of New Mexico by Nicole Maddalo Dixon (Sunstone Press) 2 Outlaw: The Innocent and the Outlaw by Harper St. George (Harlequin) 3 Historical: No Other Will Do by Karen Witemeyer (Bethany House) 4 Ranching: No Way Up by Mary Connealy (Bethany House) 4 Modern: Wild Montana Skies by Susan May Warren (Revell)

BEST NEW WESTERN AUTHOR Benjamin Madley Benjamin Madley is True West’s “Best New Western Author” for 2016 for his comprehensively researched and well-written An American Genocide: The United States and the California Indian Catastrophe (Yale University Press). Madley is a UCLA associate professor of history, and An American Genocide courageously challenges the status quo—with primary sources—about how the state and federal government were involved in the decimation of the California Indian tribes.

THE LAST ROUNDUP Paul Aiken, 1959-2016 Paul Aiken, the former executive director of the Author’s Guild, died January 29, of ALS, at age 57. Matt Braun, 1932-2016 Matt Braun, author of 52 Western novels, was awarded the WWA Owen Wister Award in 2004. He died at 83 years old on March 21. Lenore Carroll, 1930-2016 Kansas City, Missouri, author and English teacher Lenore Carroll, who published 24 short stories and six novels, died on May 27. Paul Cool, 1950-2016 Author Paul Cool, best known for Salt Warriors: Insurgency on the Southwest Border, died at the age of 66 in Scottsdale, Arizona, on July 28. Richard H. Dillon, 1924 -2016 Renowned Western historian, educator, librarian and author Richard H. Dillon died at the age of 97 in Mill Valley, California, on July 7. Ed Gorman, 1941-2016 WWA Spur award-winner Ed Gorman died at age 74 in Cedar Rapids, Iowa, on October 14. Earl Hamner Jr., 1923-2016 For sixty years, few writers had as much influence on television history as Earl Hamner Jr., best known for The Waltons. He died in Los Angeles on March 24 at the age of 92. James L. Hester, 1931-2016 University of Colorado professor emeritus of anthropology James L. Hester was 84 years old when he passed away in Boulder on January 12. H. Joaquin Jackson, 1935-2016 Texas Ranger and author H. Joaquin Jackson died at the age of 80 on June 15 in Alpine, Texas. Paul Joseph Lederer, 1944-2016 Prolific Western author Paul J. Lederer, best known for his eight-book “Indian Heritage” series, died in La Mesa, California, on January 30. Jack Page, 1936-2016 Mystery writer, editor, historian and Spur Award-winner Jack Page died at the age of 80 at his Lyons, Colorado, home on February 10. Miles Swarthout, 1946-2016 Miles Swarthout died at home in Playa Del Rey, California, on March 2. He was best known for a screen adaption of his father’s novel, The Shootist. Miles’s final novel, The Last Shootist, was True West’s best Western novel of 2014. Jon Tuska, 1942-2016 Jon Tuska died at the age of 73 on January 18 at his home in Portland, Oregon. The literary agent also wrote or edited more than 30 books, many on Western film and literature. T R U E

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BEST WESTERN HISTORY PUBLISHER The University of Oklahoma Press The University of Oklahoma Press has set the standard for publishing the history of the North American West for over 90 years, and its current Western history catalogue is unequalled amongst university imprints.

BEST OF THE REST: 1 National: W.W. Norton; New York, New York 2 University: Texas A&M University Press and the Texas Book Consortium, including University of North Texas Press and TCU Press 3 Regional: South Dakota Historical Society; Pierre, South Dakota

3 Old West History: McFarland; Jefferson, North Carolina

BEST OF THE REST:

4 Trade: TwoDot/Rowman & Littlefield; Lanham, Maryland

2 University: The University of California Press; Berkeley, California

BEST WESTERN FICTION PUBLISHER Five Star Publishing Five Star Publishing, an imprint of Gale Cengage Learning in Waterville, Maine, is currently publishing more Western and Frontier titles than any other publisher of Western fiction. Under the editorial direction of Tiffany Schofield, editors are guiding and encouraging a very diverse group of authors—many of them first-time authors— to create a catalogue of Old West fiction that will remind readers of the glory days of Dell and Bantam.

1 National: Forge; New York, New York

3 Electronic: Wolfpack Publishing, LLC; Las Vegas, Nevada 4 Regional: Poisoned Pen Press; Scottsdale, Arizona 5 Mass Market: Pinnacle; New York, New York

BEST WESTERN BOOKSTORE Guidon 7830 E. Redfield Rd. Suite 1 Scottsdale, Arizona 85260 Guidon.com (480) 945-8811 With over fifty years in the Western book business in Arizona, Guidon has recently moved to a new location to serve its customers more efficiently from a storefront in the Scottsdale Airpark, as well as an expanded online store. Call owner Shelly Dudley for current hours and/or to make a special appointment.

BEST OF THE REST: 1 Large: Powell’s City of Books; Portland, Oregon, Powells.com 2 Medium: Collected Works Bookstore and Coffeehouse; Santa Fe, New Mexico, CWBookstore.com 3 Small: Hole in the Wall; Wall, South Dakota, Wall-Drug. Myshopify.com 4 Specialized: The Poisoned Pen Bookstore; Scottsdale, Arizona, PoisonedPen.com 5 Writer’s Haven: Tattered Cover Book Store; Denver, Colorado, TatteredCover.com

56 Fort Garland Fort Garland in Colorado’s San Luis Valley was founded in 1858. The post was showing its age when Wheeler Survey photographer Timothy O’Sullivan posed these soldiers at the main entrance to the fort on his last expedition in 1874. – COURTESY LIBRARY OF CONGRESS – T R U E

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Another new and exciting Western novel by

BEST OF THE BEST ROUNDUP TRAVEL HISTORY Travel is a strong segment of Western publishing and is interpreted in many different genres, including personal memoir, community, tourism and transportation history. Current and classic Western travel provides a great personal window into the West’s present and past.

Lee MArtin

1 Last Chance Byway: The History of Nine Mile Canyon, by Jerry D. Spangler and Donna Kemp Spangler (The University of Utah Press) 2 Lost Ghost Towns of Teller County by Jan Mackell Collins (The History Press) 3 The Mighty Colorado River: From the Glaciers to the Gulf by Jim Turner (Rio Nuevo Publishers) 4 Over the Edge: Fred Harvey at the Grand Canyon and in the Great Southwest by Kathleen L. Howard and Diana F. Pardue (Rio Nuevo Publishers) 5 The Texas Frontier and the Butterfield Overland Mail, 1858-1861 by Glen Sample Ely (University of Oklahoma Press)

WOMEN IN THE WEST Publishers across the board are adding to their catalogues strong volumes of history, biography and fiction about women in the West. Here is a sampling of four diverse volumes of history, and one fictional biography of Josephine Marcus. 1 All for the Greed of Gold: Will Woodin’s Klondike Adventure edited by Catherine Holder Spude (Washington State University Press) 2 Frontier Grit: The Unlikely True Stories of Daring Pioneer Women by Marianne Monson (Shadow Mountain)

In 1877, Sam Jeffries, a shot up, beat up, bitter ex-lawman finds himself roped into escorting Lorena Ramsey, a fugitive widow, and her mute son on a wild ride south. Aided by old scouts and a troublesome, lecherous gambler, they fight their way down through Colorado’s mesa country, across the flooded Grand River, and through the badlands of New Mexico Territory as they head for Texas. All the while, a Ramsey lynch mob led by her vengeful ex mother-in-law is hot on their trail.

3 The Last Woman Standing: A Novel by Thelma Adams (Lake Union Publishing)

Based on Lee Martin’s screenplay. Watch for it and Lee Martin’s 19 other Western novels on AMAZON or wherever books are sold.

4 Soap Suds Row: The Bold Lives of Army Laundresses, 1802-1976 by Jennifer J. Lawrence (High Plains Press)

Don’t miss Lee’s THE GRANT CONSPIRACY, reviewed by True West Magazine, and SHADOW ON THE MESA, from which Lee wrote the highly rated movie with Kevin Sorbo.

5 Soldier, Sister, Spy, Scout: Women Soldiers and Patriots on the Western Frontier by Chris Enss and Joann Chartier (TwoDot)

Amazon.com Many are on audio with BOOKS IN MOTION.

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WEAPONS, VIOLENCE AND WAR IN THE WEST Violence in the American West has been a favorite topic of authors and publishers for many years. Reviewing it from different perspectives, including one-sided warfare, law enforcement, technology, sociology and industrialization provides a broader interpretation of the cause and effects—and the long-range ramifications—of weapons, violence and war in the West. 1 Blood on the Marias: The Baker Massacre by Paul R. Wylie (University of Oklahoma Press) 2 Edward J. Steptoe and the Indian Wars: Life on the Frontier, 1815-1865 by Ronald McFarland (McFarland) 3 Riding for the Lone Star: Frontier Cavalry and the Texas Way of War, 1822-1865 by Nathan A. Jennings (University of North Texas Press)

4 Thundersticks: Firearms and the Violent Transformation of Native America by David L. Silverman (The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press) 5 The Winchester: The Gun that Built an American Dynasty by Laura Trevelyan (Yale University Press)

SELF-PUBLISHED AND SMALL PRESS Western authors of fiction and non-fiction are using all available platforms, small presses and self-publishing, to push their stories out to the public in a dynamic, fluid world of communications.

4 Shootout in Cheyenne by Joe Corso (Black Horse Publishing) 5 Way Before Daylight Long After Dark: A New Mexico Rancher’s Story by Carl Lane Johnson (Lea County Museum Press)

20TH- TO 21ST-CENTURY WESTERN FICTION While the Mystery and Romance genres and their many sub-categories dominate post-1920 Western fiction, many traditional, contemporary authors continue to set their literary novels in the West. A selection: 1 Buffalo Jump Blues by Keith McCafferty (Viking)

1 Death after Life: Tales of Nevada by William A. Douglas (Black Rock Institute)

2 Cowboys Fly: Book One by JPS Brown (Make a Hand Publishing LLC)

2 Devil on the Loose by Doug Hocking (Buckland Abbey, LLC)

3 Midnight Crossing: A Mystery by Tricia Fields (Minotaur Books)

3 Mary Fields aka Stagecoach Mary by Erich Martin Hicks (First Edition E Books)

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57 Vernal Falls California pioneer photographer Carleton E. Watkins’s images of Yosemite helped promote its federal protection in 1864. In 1861, with his custom made 18 x 22-inch glass plate camera, he ventured to Yosemite and photographed Vernal Falls. – COURTESY LIBRARY OF CONGRESS –

2 Convict Cowboys: The Untold History of Texas Prison Rodeo by Mitchel P. Roth (University of North Texas Press)

4 The Necessary Murder of Nonie Blake by Terry Shames (Seventh Street Books) 5 Showdown City: A Novel by Todd Berger (Diversion Books)

20TH- AND 21ST-CENTURY WESTERN NONFICTION

3 Counterpunch: The Cultural Battles Over Heavyweight Prizefighting in the American West by Meg Frisbee (University of Washington Press)

When does the Old West end and the Modern West begin? Historians of 20th- and 21st-century Western nonfiction have the opportunity to expand our understanding of what the West is today through a prism of topics including gender, racial, economic, cultural and environmental history.

3 Forging the Star: The Official Modern History of the United States Marshals Service by David S. Turk (University of North Texas Press)

1 Cowboys and Gangsters: Stories of an Untamed Southwest by Samuel K. Dolan (TwoDot)

3 Ma Barker: America’s Most Wanted Mother by Howard Kazanjian and Chris Enss (TwoDot)

FINAL POST: POSTHUMOUSLY PUBLISHED Jim Harrison Noted Western author Jim Harrison died at his home in Patagonia, Arizona, on March 26, 2016. Harrison wrote 21 novels, as well as poetry. His last volume of poetry, Dead Man’s Float (Copper Canyon Press), was published in January, and his final collection of three novellas, The Ancient Minstrel (Grove Press), was published in August.

AMERICANA, POLITICAL & LEGENDS OF THE WEST December 3, 2016 | Dallas | Live & Online

Thanks, True West Readers, for Voting Heritage as the “Best Old West Collectibles” Auctions for the 6th Consecutive Year! Featured here are some of the fine Western items in our upcoming auction.

Important engraved Henry rifle with Contention, Arizona Territory connection Opening Bid $15,000

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Fine cigar store figure from the workshop of Julius Theodore Melchers Opening Bid $10,000

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A Fistful of Thunder Colt’s 1877 Self co*cker, in .41 Long Colt caliber, better known as the Thunderer, packed its punch in a relatively small package.

T Although these 1880s Texas Rangers are well outfitted with 1873 Winchesters and ’73 Colts, the man at left has decided to also pack a small ’77 DA Colt as backup, quite possibly in .41 Long Colt caliber. This nickeled (with heat-blued screws) and pearl-stocked (optional), 5-inch barreled .41 Long Colt Thunderer model was made in 1892, and later carried in El Paso, Texas, during the Mexican Revolution of 1910. – TEXAS RANGERS PHOTO TRUE WEST ARCHIVES / COLT PHOTO COURTESY PHIL SPANGENBERGER COLLECTION –

he British affinity for double-action (DA) revolvers led to a number of imports into the American West over the years, like the popular Bulldog revolver. By the mid-1870s, these rapid-shooting sidearms gained enough favor that in 1877, Colt finally brought out its first DA revolver. When the ’77 was initially produced, Colt dubbed it a “New Double Action, Self co*cking, Central Fire, Six Shot Revolver.” Noting that the six-gun’s DA capabilities allowed for quite rapid firing, Colt’s major distributor, B. Kittredge of Cincinnati, Ohio, coined the monikers of “Lightning” for the .38 caliber, and “Thunderer” for the .41 bore, but ironically it is the Lightning name that stuck. Around 200 were produced in .32 Colt caliber (called “Rainmaker”), but these are extremely rare today. It is the .41 Long Colt-chambered Thunderer that we’ll focus on here. Built around scaled-down lines of its 1873 Single Action Army revolver, but with a bird’s-head grip, larger trigger guard, and in DA, this self-co*cker, regardless of caliber, the Thunderer was plagued with problems that resulted in all too frequent breaking of its intricately shaped, highly flexed internal springs, and an action that was often out of sync. T R U E

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Ejectorless ’77 Colts could be had with barrels up to 4½ inches. An ideal fistful of Thunder, this blue, color-cased and pearl-stocked, 3½-inch ejectorless “Storekeeper” .41 caliber Thunderer weighs just 23 ounces. It left the factory in 1887. – PHOTOS COURTESY PHIL SPANGENBERGER COLLECTION UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED –

Despite these weaknesses, 166,849 were turned out between 1877 and 1909, largely due to its fast action and smooth handling—qualities that endeared it to many, especially in the West! The .41 Long Colt Thunderer is probably best remembered as the oft-used six-gun of outlaw William Bonney, aka Billy The Kid, as witnessed by Westerner Frank Collinson, in 1878, when he ran across the young gunman. Collinson recalled that the Kid was not much to look at, and was shabbily dressed, but had his “...ever-ready Colt double-action .41 pistol around him and in easy reach....” The ’77 Thunderer was also packed by outlaw Cole Younger and infamous Texas shootist John Wesley Hardin, as well as lawman Pat Garrett, who was presented with a silver-handled .41 Colt while serving as a customs collector in 1903. These hard cases preferred the .41 Long Colt as their pocket revolvers for good reasons. Barrel lengths ran from 1½ to 10 inches, with the norm running at 2½ to 3½ inches without an ejector and 4½ to 6 inches with an ejector. Lightweight (the 6-inch barrel with ejector weighed 27

Although just slightly smaller in overall size, one can see how Colt’s 3-inch ejectorless, .41 Colt, M-1877 DA could be somewhat easier to conceal than a standardframed 1873 Single Action Army. For size comparison (left to right), a 200-grain .41 Long Colt round is shown with a 200-grain .38 Special, and a 250-grain .45 Colt cartridge.

ounces), most were easy to conceal under a coat. The .41 Long Colt cartridge, introduced with the 1877, became a relatively powerful and popular round in the late 19th century, even with the availability of some larger revolvers like Colt’s ’73 Single Action. The factory load boasted a 200-grain lead bullet backed by around 20 to 21 grains of black powder that produced a muzzle velocity of 730 feet per second (fps) and about 235 foot pounds of energy. This packed slightly more punch than the Lightning’s .38 Long Colt, 150-grain lead projectile, moving at 770 fps, with 195 foot pounds of muzzle energy, and was comparable to a modern .38 Special with a 200-grain lead bullet. Although Colt’s 1877 DA revolver has the dubious honor of having the worst doubleaction system ever devised, in new condition, the Thunderer was considered an efficient six-gun. However, when actually used much, inherent weaknesses showed in its design. Based on its longevity and production figures, the gun-buying public of the late 19th century was willing to overlook its faults—probably because most handguns were simply carried more than they were actually fired. The ’77 Colt in .41 caliber could be considered the .38 Special of its day, and in the relatively

compact size of the Thunderer, it made for one helluva six-shooter—one of the classics of the Wild West! Phil Spangenberger has written for Guns & Ammo, appears on the History Channel and other networks, produces Wild West shows, is a Hollywood gun coach and character actor, and is True West’s Firearms Editor.

– COURTESY CIMARRON ARMS –

A MODERN .41 THUNDERER Colt’s 1877 DA revolver suffered from complicated and fragile internal mechanisms, so Cimarron Arms’ founder and president Mike Harvey designed a singleaction (SA) version. Called the “Lightning,” like the original DA pistols, Cimarron’s SA offers a more reliable and durable six-gun than the 19th-century model, giving today’s shooter the looks and heft of the 19th-century Thunderers with single-action simplicity and 21st-century reliability. This small-framed, bird’s-head gripped SA is available in .41 Long Colt, too, as well as .45 Colt, .38 Special and .22 Long Rifle, with 3½-inch (shown), 4¾-inch, 5½-inch, or 6½-inch barrels. As Doc would say, “It’s a Daisy!”

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cody, wyoming

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Just east of Yellowstone. ■ Five museums – one price. ■ tickets.centerofthewest.org. ■

image: Larry Pirnie (b. 1940). A Wild West Welcome, 2009.

Acrylic on board. Buffalo Bill Center of the West, Cody, Wyoming, USA. Gift of the Artist. 17.09

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58 Eager for Deer William Henry Jackson, whose photographs helped influence the establishment of Yellowstone Park, also was a master of the still life, such as this image of a hunter with his deer-hunting beagles, circa 1880-97. – COURTESY LIBRARY OF CONGRESS –

BEST GUNLEATHER ARTISAN Old West Reproductions, Florence, MT

BEST FIREARM ENGRAVER A&A Engraving, Rapid City, SD

Old West Reproductions artisans handcraft gun leather products “made in the tradition of the Old West” and modeled meticulously after products originally used from 1849 to 1900. Personal customer satisfaction and custom work are hallmarks of Old West Reproduction’s President Rick M. Bachman. OldWestReproductions.com

For 40 years, A&A Engraving has been America’s trusted choice for fine commemorative firearms. The company offers complete custom design services, resulting in heirloom quality showpieces that honor the unique communities, businesses, organizations and individuals who have built, protected and continue to serve the United States of America. AAEngraving.com

READERS’ CHOICE: John Bianchi Frontier Gunleather, Cathedral City, CA

READERS’ CHOICE: American Legacy Firearms, Fort Collins, CO

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Taylor’s & Co.’s exclusive secondgeneration, stagecoach-style, single-action revolver, The Smoke Wagon, has a blue finish with a case-hardened frame, and a thin, richly detailed, checkered grip for comfort and improved aim. The Smoke Wagon is an exclusive, trademarked sidearm of the Winchester, Virginia, firearm company. The deluxe Smoke Wagon includes custom tuning, a custom hammer and base pin

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59 Camp Apache

springs, a trigger pull set at three pounds, jig-cut, positive angles on all triggers and sears for crisp, reliable action, and a wire bolt spring. TaylorsFirearms.com

Timothy H. O’Sullivan ingratiated himself with local Indian tribes on his three survey trips with Lt. George Wheeler, including a group of Apache braves at Camp Apache in 1873. – COURTESY LIBRARY OF CONGRESS –

READERS’ CHOICE: Ruger’s Vaquero, Fairport, NY

BEST COWBOY ACTION RIFLE Uberti’s 1873 Winchester, Acco*keek, MD Known worldwide as “the rifle that won the West,” the Winchester 1873 Rifle and Carbine is manufactured by Uberti in seven distinctive models, including an Uberti 1873 Carbine, Uberti 1873 Special Sporting Rifle, Uberti 1873 Trapper and Uberti 1873 Half Octagon Rifle. Uberti.com

READERS’ CHOICE: Marlin’s 1895 Cowboy Madison, NC

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60 The Grizzly Giant In 1865-66 Galen Clark, frontiersman and Yosemite Valley conservationist, posed for Carleton E. Watkins in front of “The Grizzly Giant,” 33 feet in diameter, in the Mariposa Grove. – TRUE WEST ARCHIVES –

BEST COWBOY ACTION SHOTGUN Cimarron Firearms‘ 1887 Lever Action Terminator, Fredericksburg, TX #32 Cheyenne Holster For 7 1/2” Colt SA and #26 Double Row Money Cartridge Belt.

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Modeled after an original in the Cimarron Firearms private collection, the five-shot smoothbore 1887 Lever Action Terminator repeating shotgun first went on sale in the spring of 1888. The shotgun quickly became a favorite of law-enforcement officers across the

West. Today’s, Cimarron 1887 Lever Action Terminator is available in either a 22-, or 28-inch round blued barrel, a color case hardened receiver, in 12 gauge and capable of handling 2¾-inch shotshells. Cimarron-Firearms.com

READERS’ CHOICE: Century Arms‘ 1887 Lever Action Shotgun, Delray Beach, FL

Best single shot Rifle Shiloh Sharps’ 1874 Long Range Express The Shiloh Sharps 1874 Long Range Express is one of nine models of 1874 Shiloh Sharps rifles offered by the company. Every model can be customized individually, in numerous calibers, four grades of wood, multiple wood finishes, barrel length, weight and features—every minor detail and accessory a gun owner could want or imagine. ShilohRifle.com

ReadeRs’ ChoiCe: Uberti‘s 1885 High Wall Rifle Acco*keek, MD

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CRASH 61 Sheezahnantan In 1874, Timothy H. O’Sullivan paused from his landscape photography for the Wheeler Survey to take a series of portraits of Jicarilla Apaches, including Sheezahnantan, at the Abiquiu Agency near Tierra Amarilla, New Mexico Territory.

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62 Party Photo The Wheeler Expedition paused and resupplied at Fort Whipple near Prescott, Arizona Territory, in the fall of 1871, before following the Crook Trail to Camp Apache in the White Mountains. – COURTESY LIBRARY OF CONGRESS –

BEST COMMEMORATIVE RIFLE Navy Arms‘ 1873 Winchester Martinsburg, WV To celebrate its first century of excellence, the Buffalo Bill Center of the West is proud to partner with Navy Arms and

Winchester Firearms to re-create the famed Winchester “Centennial Model” 1873 leveraction rifle. Working with Winchester, Navy Arms—the company that launched the replica-firearms industry—worked with original maker Winchester for the production of just 200 exhibition models and 1,000 presentation models. One hundred percent

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of the profits from the sale of these two models will go to the mission of the Buffalo Bill Center of the West and the Cody Firearms Museum. CodyGun.com/NavyArms.com

READERS’ CHOICE: Navy Arms‘ 1873 Winchester Martinsburg, WV

63 Yellowstone Hayden Survey photographer William Henry Jackson’s landscapes of the Yellowstone country, including an encampment by a small lake between East Fork and Yellowstone Lake, helped influence President Ulysses S. Grant to create Yellowstone National Park. – COURTESY YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK –

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BY HENRY C. PARKE

The Pathfinder Films

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64 Feeling Small The story of the dangers faced by John Wesley Powell and nine others while making a map of the Colorado River region during their 1869 expedition hit the big screen in 1960’s Ten Who Dared. Shown above is Powell’s assistant topographer, Frederick Samuel Dellenbaugh, on Powell’s second expedition from 1871-72, seated by the Green River in Lodore Canyon. – POWELL EXPEDITION PHOTO COURTESY U.S. NATIONAL PARK SERVICE; TEN WHO DARED POSTER COURTESY WALT DISNEY PRODUCTIONS –

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or all of the pathfinders’ importance in the settling of the West, the films about those great pioneers comprise a short list indeed. The best treatment of John C. “Pathfinder” Frémont is Richard Chamberlain’s star portrayal in the 1986 miniseries Dream West (Warner Archive), which also featured Rip Torn as Fremont’s frequent collaborator, Kit Carson. Dana Andrews played Frémont as a supporting character in 1940’s Kit Carson (United Artists), with Jon Hall in the lead. Brady Bunch dad Robert Reed played Frémont in Disney’s 1977 Kit Carson and the Mountain Men, and Frémont turned up as a character once more in a 1966 episode of Death Valley Days, played by Sergeant Preston of the Yukon star Dick Simmons. Not all of the films hit their mark. For instance, the title for The Adventures of Frontier Fremont, starring Dan Haggerty, suggested the 1976 movie would focus on the Pathfinder, but it played more like Grizzly Adams 2. One worthy entry in the Lewis and Clark filmography is 1955’s The Far Horizons (Warner Archive), starring Fred MacMurray as Meriwether Lewis, Charlton Heston as William Clark and Oscar winner Donna Reed as Sacagawea. The history is iffy, but the production is grand. Otherwise, aside from a 1967 episode of Death Valley Days, in which Dick Simmons played Lewis to Don Matheson’s Clark and Victoria Vetri’s Sacagawea, Thomas Jefferson’s explorers have had little screen time. In 2005, HBO and National Geographic announced

Thomas Jefferson’s Corps of Discovery has been a work in progress for HBO and National Geographic since 2005. While you anticipate the release of that miniseries, in 2018, you can check out a musical adventure, called Manifest Destiny, that showcases the classic Destiny characters, Sacagawea, Meriwether Lewis and William Clark—and hand puppets.

READERS’ CHOICE: Traded (Status Media)

– COURTESY NEW RENAISSANCE PICTURES –

a miniseries based on Stephen Ambrose’s enthralling history of the expedition, Undaunted Courage, starring Edward Norton and Brad Pitt. Eleven years later, the project is set for a 2018 release, now starring Casey Affleck and Matthias Schoenaerts. The slow-poke filmmakers were beaten to the punch in 2016, with the release of Manifest Destiny: The Lewis & Clark Musical Adventure, a musical featuring Muppet-ish hand puppets as well as human performers. Probably the best film about pathfinders is 1960’s Ten Who Dared (Disney). James Drury, who played Walter Powell, tells True West, “It was the story of the first party of white men who went down through the Colorado River rapids after the Civil War. It was led by Captain [John Wesley] Powell, a surveyor and explorer who had been a major in the Union Army, and had lost an arm. They named Lake Powell after [him]. I don’t think the picture made 10¢ for Disney, but it was just such a delightful show to be a part of.” The year 2016 truly was a big year for pathfinder films, although for a different path—the path to freedom (see sidebar). The year was not so great, however, for traditional big-screen Westerns. Diablo (Orion/MGM), starring Clint Eastwood’s son, Scott, made some waves, as did Traded (Status Media), starring Michael Paré; both films garnered less attention than they deserved and are worth seeing. The most notable disappointment was the Sony

an Academy Awards sweep, with four Oscarworthy performances—by Jeff Bridges, Ben Foster, Chris Pine and Gil Birmingham— and equally fine writing, direction and cinematography.

remake of The Magnificent Seven, which, despite a strong cast that included Denzel Washington and Ethan Hawke, was deficient in every category aside from action. While 2016 didn’t end with the splash of the previous year, due to twin Christmas Day premieres for The Hateful Eight and The Revenant, it did close with an ever-growing Revenant schedule of quality Western film and TV releases that reassures us that the genre is a growing concern, not an endangered species.

BEST WESTERN MOVIE Hell or High Water With a timeless story of the conflict between desperation-fueled criminality and the relentless forces of justice, Hell or High Water (CBS Films) is our pick. It deserves

BEST TRADITIONAL WESTERN MOVIE Jane Got a Gun / Forsaken A tie! That either film saw the light of day at all was a miracle resulting from stalwart filmmakers determined to get these excellent Westerns in front of audiences. Jane Got a Gun (The Weinstein Company), starring and produced by Natalie Portman, tells the story of a wife who must protect her husband from his former gang, with the help of her former lover. Nothing stopped this film; not the director quitting the first day of shooting, not star actors bailing along the way and, on the eve of release, not the original distributor filing for bankruptcy. Facing its own challenges, Forsaken (Momentum) was shelved for two years due

The epic, true story of some of the most wanted men in Australia’s bushranger history is showcased in The Legend of Ben Hall. – BY KIM DICKSON –

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to financial problems. But the story of an estranged soldier son and minister father— played by real-life son and father Kiefer and Donald Sutherland—who joined forces to protect their town, gave a fresh and moving spin to some familiar themes.

READERS’ CHOICE: Diablo (Orion/MGM)

BEST FOREIGN WESTERN MOVIE The Legend of Ben Hall

Known as Dominion Creek when streaming in the U.S. on Netflix, the Irish Western television series, An Klondike, follows emigrant brothers who travel from Montana to the Canadian Yukon during the Klondike Gold Rush. – COURTESY ACORN –

The true story of Australia’s Jesse James, The Legend of Ben Hall (Pinnacle Films) is handsomely written and directed by Matthew Holmes and stars Hall’s dead ringer, Jack Martin. With solid performances throughout, the film tells the story of an outlaw trying to end his criminal career, humanizing him and his gang without whitewashing them. It’s exciting, romantic, beautiful, packed with action, yet full of

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regret, betrayal and the sense of mistakes that cannot be undone.

READERS’ CHOICE: Brimstone (Embankment)

BEST TV WESTERN Westworld We regretfully had to bid farewell to AMC’s Hell on Wheels, a consistently excellent series that did so much to stimulate the revival of the Western. But at least the show finished the Transcontinental Railroad before leaving. Netflix kept Longmire fans happy by streaming a fifth season, a fine release. The wonderful surprise of the year, and the Best TV Western, is the HBO miniseries Westworld, which took an already wonderfully clever 1973 movie and re-imagined it with even more depth, soul and humor.

READERS’ CHOICE: Hell on Wheels (AMC)

True west jan 2017:Layout 1

Natalie Portman and father-and-son Sutherlands bring star power to two Westerns that almost did not get made, but thankfully did. Both films should please fans seeking American Westerns that adhere to traditional story tropes. – FORSAKEN POSTER COURTESY MOMENTUM; JANE GOT A GUN POSTER COURTESY THE WEINSTEIN COMPANY –

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TOMBSTONE Art by Jerry Crandall Celebrating the iconic western movie TOMBSTONE, Jerry Crandall has gathered relevant collector items significant to the movie. Jerry was a Cowboy in the film and appears in the print where he was shot off his terrific movie horse Apache, during which he broke his shoulder! The notable Curly Bill boots are prominent with their recognizable Aces hand of cards. O.K. Corral sign, the flat brimmed hat and rumpled famed red sash are movie reminders. Propped on a leather Wyatt Earp trunk is a small green card case against which is leaning the fabled Buntline Special which was used by Wyatt Earp in the movie. Original oil 34” X 30” Canvas Giclée 24” X 21” $225. Art Print 22” X 20” $65.

www.eagle-editions.com * [emailprotected] * 1-800-255-1830 T R U E

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BEST FOREIGN TV WESTERN Dominion Creek Dominion Creek (Acorn) is a delightful surprise from the Broadcasting Authority of Ireland. The three Connolly brothers, sorely disappointed with Montana’s silver mines, accept the gift of a friend’s claim and head for the Yukon—and a world of danger and adventure. The series remarkably captures the sense of the Irish community within the Gold Rush by having much of the dialogue in subtitled Gaeilge.

Wild Bill Elliott stars as the peaceable sheriff (above, far left) in 1953’s Vigilante Terror, a B-Western far tougher than earlier films—the tense hanging scene makes the law of the rope appear barbaric, and one of the gang members gets shot in the face! – COURTESY ALLIED ARTISTS / WARNER ARCHIVE –

BEST WESTERN MOVIE BLU-RAY The Ox-Bow Incident The best of the many fine classic Western DVD releases of the year is Kino Lorber’s edition of 1943’s The Ox-Bow Incident, which tells the story of a lynching and its heartbreaking repercussions. One of Henry Fonda’s best Westerns, featuring an exceptional cast that includes Dana Andrews and Anthony Quinn, this edition offers wonderful narration by the son of director William Wellman.

READERS’ CHOICE: Man in the Wilderness (Warner Archive)

BEST WESTERN MOVIE COLLECTION Wild Bill Elliott Western Collection

Rod Serling first made a commentary on the “soft” Westerns appearing on TV through “Showdown with Rance McGrew,” a Twilight Zone episode in which a Westerns actor (played by Larry Blyden, above) encounters the ghost of Jesse James. Serling convinced CBS to air a realistic Western, The Loner, starring Lloyd Bridges (inset), but the creator was ahead of his time. The show lasted less than one season, yet shines today on DVD. – COURTESY CBS / SHOUT! FACTORY –

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Warner Archive brings viewers the alwaysengaging presence of William Elliott, in the final films of his sagebrush career, in the Wild Bill Elliott Western Collection. The first film, 1951’s The Longhorn, is a traditional Monogram B-Western; by the eighth film, 1954’s The Forty-Niners, Monogram had reinvented itself as Allied Artists and, even with Elliott maintaining his butt-forward pistols, the story plays like Dragnet, including a Jack Webb-style narration.

READERS’ CHOICE: George O’Brien Western Collection (Warner Archive)

Although the 1943 Western failed to pay its way and may be considered a box-office flop, The Ox-Bow Incident, starring Henry Fonda, earned enough accolades to land at the Academy Awards. The Western lost the Oscar for Best Picture to Casablanca. – COURTESY TWENTIETH CENTURY-FOX FILM / KINO LORBER –

BEST SILENT WESTERN RELEASE 3 Bad Men John Ford directed 3 Bad Men (Kino Lorber), a stunning variation on The Three Godfathers story, with the 1926 Western featuring a trio who protect an orphaned teenage girl (Olive Borden). In this moving and complex story, the 1877 Dakota Territory land rush sequence is the most enthralling scene of its kind ever filmed.

BEST TV DVD The Loner When Twilight Zone ended, writer Rod Serling followed the Psychological Thriller with a Western series, The Loner (Shout! Factory), in which he transferred some of his own post-WWII angst into the post-Civil War era. Lloyd Bridges stars as William Colton, a former Union Army captain, who, six months after the end of the war, is a drifter colliding with people whose pain is still as raw as his own. Today, we would say he had PTSD. Just about every top TV actor of the era appeared in the series, which aired from 1965-66, including Burgess Meredith, Tony Bill, James Whitmore, Katharine Ross, Victor Jory and Bridges’ sons Beau and Jeff. Many, like Lloyd Bridges, did some of their best work on this fascinating series.

READERS’ CHOICE: Daniel Boone: Season One (Shout! Factory)

READERS’ CHOICE: Another Man’s Boots (Grapevine Video)

BEST FILM FESTIVAL Lone Pine Film Festival California’s Lone Pine Film Festival takes place in the magical landscape of the High Sierras, around the fabled Alabama Hills, which have been featured in Western classics since the days of silent cinema. Last year’s theme focused on 3 Bad Men and 3 Godfathers. It was a second- and thirdgeneration family affair, featuring John Ford’s grandson Dan, William Wellman’s son William Jr., William Witney’s son Jay Dee Witney, Robert Mitchum’s daughter Petrine Day Mitchum, Roy Rogers’ and Dale Evans’ daughter Cheryl Rogers Barnett, Harry Carey Jr.’s daughter Melinda Carey and Joel McCrea’s and Frances Dee’s grandson Wyatt McCrea. Henry C. Parke is a screenwriter based in Los Angeles, California, who blogs about Western movies, TV, radio and print news: HenrysWesternRoundup.Blogspot.com

Free State of Jones – COURTESY UNIVERSAL / SHOWTIME NETWORKS –

PATH TO FREEDOM Of all the heroic journeys that Western film and TV examined in 2016 the most frequent was the trek to escape slavery. Alex Haley’s discovery of his African ancestor’s roots in slavery, told in the novel Roots, inspired the groundbreaking 1977 miniseries (Warner Archive). Nearly four decades later, a new Roots (Lionsgate) retold Kunta Kinte’s abduction, sale into slavery and eventual triumph. Airing on the History Channel, A&E and Lifetime, the miniseries was grittier and stunningly photographed. Malachi Kirby was impressive as Kinte, though, at 26, compared to LeVar Burton’s age of 19 in the original, he was more of a man than the boy becoming a man. WGN America aired its original drama, Sony’s Underground, that shared a compelling story of the Underground Railroad’s anti-slave forces and slaves trying to escape bondage. Underground, like the Roots remake, featured a largely unfamiliar, but talented and convincing cast. Full of surprising turns, this wise tale has been renewed for a second season. The status of blacks, both slave and free, was a major element in the Civil War medical drama Mercy Street (PBS) about two nurses from opposite sides of the war. The Ridley Scott-produced series has been renewed for a second battle. Slavery hit the big screen too. The Birth of a Nation (Fox Searchlight) focused on Nat Turner’s slave revolt in the antebellum South, while Free State of Jones (Universal), based on the true story of whites and blacks who tried to secede from the Confederate States to form a free country, should have been a hit, but the excessive speechifying undercut the powerful action and story. T R U E

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BY MEGHAN SAAR

Style and Science How two budding geologists entered the field thanks to a keen eye for fashion.

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ashion was the element that brought two Yale buddies into the circle of the U.S. Geological Survey. James Terry Gardiner and Clarence King had made their way west to California and, on September 20, 1863, they experienced a chance encounter in Sacramento that changed the course of their lives forever. Gardiner described their good fortune in a letter to his mother: “[The steamship] was crowded with people from the mines. Many rough, sunburned men in flannel shirts, high boots, belts, and revolvers were around me, but among them one man attracted my attention…. An old felt hat, a quick eye, a sunburned face with different lines from the other mountaineers, a long weather-beaten neck protruding from a coarse gray flannel shirt and a rough coat, a heavy revolver belt, and long legs, made up the man; and yet he is an intellectual man—I know it…I went to Clare [King], told him the case, and showed him the man. He looked at him, and, without any previous knowledge to guide him in the identification, said, from instinct, ‘That man must be Professor Brewer, leader of Professor Whitney’s geological field-party.’” King had guessed correctly. After dinner that evening, he introduced himself and his pal to the man. The next day, Brewer introduced them to Whitney’s men. Within a week, Gardiner and King were part of the team for the California Geological Survey.

65 Stylish Scientists The California Geological Survey spurred the creation of the federal government’s U.S. Geological Survey. Josiah D. Whitney chose William H. Brewer as chief botanist to lead the California team. In the 1864 field party photograph, one member, Charles Hoffman, is absent. (From left) James T. Gardiner, Richard D. Cotter, William H. Brewer and Clarence King. – COURTESY NATIONAL PORTRAIT GALLERY, SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION –

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66 Gardiner’s Hair of Gold In 1873, Anna Dickinson climbed Longs Peak in Colorado Territory with Ferdinand V. Hayden’s survey. When she had tea with survey member James T. Gardiner (seated first on the right) in Denver later that year, he had cut his “long waving locks” and “tawny beard.” When he appeared next to her, “... close cropped, white shirted and clad in Widenfeld’s best cut,” he wrote, “she bemoaned...the loss of...my beautiful golden hair.” – COURTESY USGS –

Four years later, at the age of 25, King was the leading geologist for the 40th Parallel survey. He was quite an icon of fashion, noted Henry Adams, the grandson and greatgrandson of two U.S. Presidents. “In the evening, after a long, gritty day in the field, he donned silk hose, gleaming shoes, and a suit freshly pressed by his valet.” When Adams saw King in his finery by the campfire, he described him as “a bird of paradise rising in the sage-brush.” If anyone dared to tease the geologist about his fancy clothing, they got a lecture: “It is all very well for you, who lead a civilized life nine

or ten months in the year, and only get into the field for a few weeks at a time, to let yourself down to the pioneer level…. But I, who have been for years constantly in the field, would have lost my good habits altogether if I had not taken every possible opportunity to practice them.” King was truly a scientist with style.

BEST WESTERN CLOTHING STORE Texas Jack Wild West Outfitter, Fredericksburg, TX

Named for the Comanche fighter and consummate plainsman John “Texas Jack” Omohundro, the Texas Jack store pays homage to this valiant cowboy as an Old West outfitter selling 1870s cowboy gear and apparel, approved authentic by members of cowboy action and single action shooting groups. Housed in a former 1889 livery stable, Texas Jack Wild West Outfitter bleeds the frontier West in every pullover shirt, paisley vest frock coat and pair of Camp Clothes saddle pants. Ferdinand V. Hayden’s survey crew relaxes in their camp TexasJacks.com

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clothes in this 1872 photo by William Henry Jackson. – COURTESY YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK –

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READERS’ CHOICE: Miller Ranch, Denver, CO

68 In Paiute Country Somewhere in the Four Corners region, in 1873 or 1874, artist Thomas Moran (middle) and photographer William Henry Jackson (right) sit dressed in their field work garb next to the brightly costumed and feathered Paiute child. – TRUE WEST ARCHIVES –

BEST WESTERN HAT MAKER Catalena Hatters, Bryan, TX Made the old-fashioned way, by hand, one at a time, the custom felt hats crafted by Catalena Hatters are the best in the world for a cowboy hat connoisseur. The Catalena family can even help you restore a damaged cowboy hat that just may be too sentimental for you to discard. They are true lovers of the cowboy hat, and their pride and attention to detail show through in each hat they custom shape for their customers. CatalenaHats.com

READERS’ CHOICE: Bronco Sue Custom Hats, Ruidoso, NM

69, 70 Frontier Indians John K. Hillers produced some of the earliest views of American Indians (top photo, from the 1873 Powell Expedition), while Edward S. Curtis photographed tribes closer to the turn of the 20th century; the above portrait shows Haschezhini, a Navajo wearing a dark leather mask and a fur ruff. –COURTESY LIBRARY OF CONGRESS –

71 Dapper Explorer Looking dapper, James Stevenson was the able assistant to Ferdinand V. Hayden ever since accompanying him to the Dakota Badlands in 1866.

THANK YOU FOR VOTING MILLER RANCH “BEST WESTERN CLOTHING MAKER!” MILLERRANCH1918.COM

– TRUE WEST ARCHIVES –

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72 Pre-Yellowstone Settlers During the exploration survey that would inspire the creation of Yellowstone National Park, William Henry Jackson photographed these Pease Ranch cowboys, living along Yellowstone River. – COURTESY YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK –

74 Chinese Miners These Chinese miners were among the immigrants who sought their fortunes and spread their culture in the Western frontier, shown sluicing for gold in this 1871 photograph by William Henry Jackson. – COURTESY LIBRARY OF CONGRESS –

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73 Flanked Near Firehole Basin Wearing everyday field work clothing, Hayden survey members lined up for William Henry Jackson to take this 1872 photo (opposite page) near Firehole Basin in the Yellowstone environs of Wyoming Territory. – COURTESY YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK –

BEST WESTERN BOOTMAKER Lucchese Boots, El Paso, TX The Texas frontier troops at Fort Sam Houston must have been thrilled when the Lucchese brothers opened their boot shop in San Antonio in 1883. They made their boots affordable, yet of high quality, which holds true to this day. Their dependable boots range in style from heirloom to roper to Western, suitable for a dressy formal affair or a casual night on the town. Lucchese.com

The Best Old West Eyewear “Reproduction 1800’s spectacles to suit all sights”

READERS’ CHOICE: Corral Boots, El Paso, TX

BEST PERIOD WESTERN CLOTHING MAKER Classic Old West Styles, El Paso, TX Folks looking for handmade Western clothing and work wear made in the good old U.S.A. need look no further. You can find classic Old West styles of coats, vests, jackets, dusters, shirts and pants to your heart’s content. These vintage looks are the go-to preference for movie stars to ranch hands. COWS.com

R.Crowe 3:10 To Yuma

The Good, The Bad, & The Ugly

READERS’ CHOICE: Recollections, Hawks, MI HistoricEyeWearCompany.com 862.812.4737 T R U E

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BY STUART ROSEBROOK

Grand Adventures Await the Western Traveler

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75 Timothy H. O’Sullivan on

the Truckee River

In 1867, photographer Timothy H. O’Sullivan accompanied the Clarence King Survey of the 40th Parallel, which set up its base camp near the Truckee River and Reno, Nevada. Sullivan’s adventuresome spirit as a photographer put him in position to capture many unique images with his large-format glass-plate camera, including the survey team sailing on the Truckee River.

illions of miles of interstates, highways, roads and dirt tracks crisscross the mountains, valleys, deserts and plains of the Western United States. Amtrak still delivers passengers across the West, and dozens of heritage railroads have preserved and restored historic lines for modern rail enthusiasts. On the major waterways and lakes, travelers can cruise on modern paddle-wheelers, schooners, ships, ferries and houseboats. High adventure awaits across the West at guest ranches, where wranglers will lead you on horseback into the mountains or on a real cattle drive; on rivers, where rafting companies will take you deep into red walled river canyons or canoe- and kayakoutfitters will take you deep into the woods to experience life like a French voyageur. After after sleeping under the stars, head into town and you will discover that historic hotels, inns and restaurants are the staple of Western towns. Equally, the traveler who loves big Western cities will discover hotels with history, and the fine meals and accommodations that make them even more enjoyable than they were when they hosted the rich and famous 150 years ago. So whether you are bedding down in a bedroll after a chuck-wagon dinner and a chorus around the campfire, or enjoying the lights of a city from a restaurant atop a turn-of-the-last-century heritage hotel, Western proprietors await your visit—ready to help you plan your adventure and make memories of a lifetime.

—Stuart Rosebrook

– COURTESY LIBRARY OF CONGRESS –

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76 Grand Cañon of the Colorado When Timothy H. O’Sullivan was not available for Lt. George H. Wheeler’s survey in 1872, he hired William H. Bell. The Philadelphia photographer had a keen eye for nature’s artistry, and is well known for his vertical compositions with great depth of field. – COURTESY LIBRARY OF CONGRESS –

BEST PLACE TO LIVE LIKE AN OLD WEST COWBOY (Winter) Prescott, AZ

BEST PLACE TO LIVE LIKE AN OLD WEST COWBOY (Summer) Deadwood, SD

The original territorial capital of Arizona, Prescott has history and heritage honored and celebrated throughout the year at numerous local museums, hotels and restaurants. Don’t miss Frontier Days and the World’s Oldest Rodeo every Fourth of July.

Founded in 1876 at the northern edge of South Dakota’s Black Hills, Deadwood welcomes visitors all year long, but summertime in the historic town is a prime time to enjoy the heritage of one of the West’s most famous destinations. The annual Days of 76 Parade and Rodeo in late July is one of the best events of the year.

Visit-Prescott.com

READERS’ CHOICE: Bandera, TX T R U E

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Deadwood.com

READERS’ CHOICE: Sheridan, WY

2/10 - 2/12/17 Gold Rush Days

2/11/17 Gold Rush Days Parade

2/11 - 2/12/17 Gold Rush Days Senior Pro & Open Stock Rodeo

4/22/17 Vintage Market Place

5/6/17 Spring Dance & Food Truck Night

9/2/17

TAKE A RIDE.

A fantastic line-up of events is just around the corner. Join us out Wickenburg way!

Fiesta de Septiembre

10/8/17 Wickenburg Fly-In & Classic Car Show

11/10 - 11/12/17 Wickenburg Bluegrass Festival

12/1 - 12/2/17 Wickenburg Chamber of Commerce & Visitors Bureau (928) 684-0977 VisitWickenburg.com facebook.com/WickenburgAZ

PM City Guide ad 1.indd 1

Cowboy Christmas Poets Gathering

12/8/17 Christmas Parade of Lights

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To receive FREE information from our advertisers, simply make your selections from the category listing on the adjacent card. Either mail the post-paid card or fax it to 480-575-1903. We will forward your request. Valid until 01/31/17.

ADVENTURE Cumbres & Toltec Scenic Railroad Durango & Silverton Narrow Gauge Railroad Garrett Metal Detectors Georgetown Loop Railroad Kansas Cattle Towns O.K. Corral

FIREARMS & KNIVES p. 13 p. 65 p. 17 p. 79 p. 107 p. 1

APPAREL & ACCESSORIES Catalena Hatters Classic Old West Styles Fort Brands Western Wear Golden Gate Western Wear/ Knudsen Hat Co. Historic Eyewear Company Miller Ranch

p. 89 p. 74 BC p. 91 p. 91 p. 89

ART & COLLECTIBLES Brian Lebel’s Western Americana Show & Auction Burley Auction Gallery Cowboy Legacy Gallery Eagle Editions Heritage Auction Galleries John Wayne Masterpiece Sculpture Maze Creek Studio/AndyThomas Art Sherry Blanchard Stuart

p. 3 p. 53 p. 2 p. 83 p. 69 p. 15 IBC p. 55

EVENTS Americana, Political & Legends of the West Auction Brian Lebel’s Western Americana Show & Auction Cochise Cowboy Poetry Gathering Cowgirl Up! Show & Sale Dave Stamey/Concerts & DVDs Estate Auction, Texas Ranger Collection Hells Canyon Mule Days National Cowboy Symposium & Celebration Pendleton Round-Up Shootout On Whiskey Row Superstition Heritage Days The Artists of Taos Exhibition Wickenburg, AZ 2017 Events

p. 69 p. 3 p. 123 p. 55 p. 61 p. 53 p. 116 p. 123 p. 96 p. 76 p. 89 IFC p. 95

Black Hills Ammunition Buffalo Arms Co. E.M.F. Company Old West Reproductions Taylor’s & Company The Hawken Shop

TOURISM p. 75 p. 74 p. 82 p. 76 p. 70 p. 74

FOOD & BEVERAGE The Buckhorn Exchange

p. 103

HOME El Paso Saddleblanket Fort Brands Home Décor True West Home

p. 91 BC p. 60

LODGING Buffalo Bill’s Irma Hotel Hotel Colorado Talking Stick Resort White Stallion Ranch

p. 111 p. 77 p. 101 p. 103

MEDIA Dave Stamey Entertainment Guidon Books The Last Wild Ride by Lee Martin

p. 61 p. 61 p. 67

MUSEUMS Boot Hill Museum Buffalo Bill Center of the West Deming Luna Historical Society Harold Warp Pioneer Village John Wayne Birthplace & Museum Knight Museum & Sandhills Center Old Trail Town Museum Panhandle-Plains Historical Museum Placer County Museums Stuhr Museum of the Prairie Pioneer Superstition Mountain Museum Western Spirit: Scottsdale’s Museum of the West

p. 62 p. 73 p. 98 p. 108 p. 63 p. 117 p. 109 p. 104 p. 60 p. 116 p. 89 IFC

Albany County/Laramie, WY Bandera, TX Big Bend National Park, TX Buffalo, WY Carbon County, WY Cave Creek, AZ Chama, NM Cheyenne, WY Cody, WY Coffeyville, KS Deadwood, SD Dodge City, KS Elko, NV Florence, AZ Kansas Cattle Towns North Platte, NE Ogallala, NE Pendleton, OR Russell, KS Scott City, KS ScottsBluff/Gering, NE Sheridan, WY Terlingua, TX Wickenburg, AZ

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OTHER Bob Boze Bell Books: Badmen Big Book Sale: Classic Gunfights Series: Vol, I, II, III The Illustrated Life & Times Series: Billy The Kid, Doc Holiday, Wyatt Earp BobBozeBell.net: Daily Whipouts True West Doc Holliday T-Shirts: I’m Your Huckleberry/ The Dr. Will See You Now True West Special Subscription Offer with FREE Romaine Lowdermilk CD

p. 64 p. 86 p. 78 p. 54 p. 64 p.68

PRESERVATION Concordia Cemetery Crow Canyon Archaeological Center Kansas Cattle Towns

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78 Devil’s Anvil In 1872, William Bell accompanied Lt. George M. Wheeler as photographer on the Corps of Engineers’ Geographical Explorations and Surveys West of the 100th Meridian. One remarkable photo from the Colorado River series is of two surveyors sitting on Devil’s Anvil overlooking Sheavwitz Crossing in the Grand Canyon. – COURTESY LIBRARY OF CONGRESS –

BEST ARCHITECTURALLY PRESERVED WESTERN TOWN Virginia City, MT In 1863, gold was discovered along Alder Creek. The rush into the hills led to numerous claims and the founding of Virginia City, Montana. Once the territorial capital of Montana, the historic, livinghistory village invites visitors to stay and immerse themselves in the heritage community with its Old West entertainment, lodging, restaurants and activities, including stagecoach and train rides. VirginiaCity.com

READERS’ CHOICE: Deadwood, SD

BEST HISTORIC TOWN TOUR Laramie, WY Best known today as the home of the University of Wyoming, Laramie’s heritage as an Old West city begins in the 1860s along the overland route of the Union Pacific rail line. Like many railroad camps, Laramie quickly gained a wild reputation for lawlessness. Today’s visitors can tour 15 historic sites from Laramie’s early years on the Legends of Laramie Tour, sponsored by the Laramie Area Visitor Center. The tour includes the Wyoming Territorial Prison State Historic Site, Historic Ivinson Mansion, the historic Laramie Union Pacific Train Station and the ghost town of Sherman at the Ames Monument. VisitLaramie.org

READERS’ CHOICE: Dodge City, KS T R U E

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79 Crook’s Black

Hills Expedition

In 1876, Gen. George Crook led an army expedition into the Black Hills during the Great Sioux War. Yankton, Dakota Territory, photographer Stanley J. Morrow, who had apprenticed under Mathew Brady during the Civil War, photographed Crook’s “horsemeat march,” including an encampment near Deadwood. – COURTESY LIBRARY OF CONGRESS –

80 Indian Sweat Bath California landscape photographer Carleton E. Watkins had a studio in San Francisco, and many of his photographs reflect his career as a professional accompanying day-trippers as a hired photographer, including a group from the city visiting geysers, known as an Indian sweat bath, in Sonoma County. – COURTESY LIBRARY OF CONGRESS –

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81 Muir Glacier Edward S. Curtis, known best for his comprehensive portrait series of North American Indians, also was an accomplished landscape photographer. On a trip to Alaska in 1899 to photograph Native tribes, he recorded the eastern section of Muir Glacier, which is now part of Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve. – COURTESY LIBRARY OF CONGRESS –

Where the Wild West Lives Ride into Cave Creek,

a true western hideout where diverse and colorful cultures and characters converge. Take in spectacular scenery while enjoying Arizona’s most popular honkytonks, superb restaurants, shopping, and cultural events—all with style and a little twist of outlaw.

CaveCreek.org • 480.488.1400 Cave Creek, Arizona

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BEST PROMOTION OF A HISTORIC PLACE Sheridan, WY The town of Sheridan, Wyoming, was founded in 1884 and named after General Philip Sheridan. The historic city is a gateway to the Big Horn Mountains and Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument. When in Sheridan take a Koltiska Horse & Carriage Company tour of historic Main Street and spend a relaxing weekend in the recently restored and reopened Historic Sheridan Inn, with its superb Open Range Restaurant. SheridanWyoming.org

READERS’ CHOICE: Dodge City, KS

82 Canyon de Chelly Timothy H. O’Sullivan, like Dakota Territory photographer Stanley J. Morrow, apprenticed with Mathew Brady. O’Sullivan found solace in the West thousands of miles from the battlefield carnage he had photographed during the Civil War. A testament to his love of the Western lands can be seen in his images of magnificent canyonlands of the Southwest, including the towering walls of the Grand Canyon of Canyon de Chelly. – COURTESY LIBRARY OF CONGRESS –

ALWAYS ON

NO DAILY RESORT FEE - FREE WIFI • Award of Excellence (Talking Stick Resort) by Travelocity • Best Casino (Talking Stick Resort) by Phoenix New Times • Best Restaurant View at Dusk (Orange Sky) by AZCentral • AAA Four Diamond Award (Talking Stick Resort) by AAA

S C O T T S D A L E | 8 6 6 . 8 7 7. 9 8 9 7 | TA L K I N G S T I C K R E S O R T.C O M L o c all y ow n e d a n d c ar i ngl y o p e r ate d by t h e S al t R i ve r Pi ma - M ar ic o p a I n d ia n C o m m u ni t y.

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83 Yellowstone Lake

The surveyors of the West went to great lengths to accomplish their enormous tasks, using whatever transportation was needed. In 1871, William Henry Jackson photographed members of the Hayden Survey on Anna, the first boat on Yellowstone Lake. – COURTESY YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK –

BEST OLD WEST TOWN TO LIVE IN Prescott, AZ

BEST HISTORIC CEMETERY OF THE WEST Concordia Cemetery, TX

BEST PRESERVED HISTORIC FORT OF THE WEST Fort Davis National Historic Site, TX

Prescott’s Courthouse Square and historic downtown welcomes visitors to enjoy the mile-high city with its heritage hotels, Whiskey Row shops and saloons, and numerous art galleries, restaurants, museums and antique shops. The city, adjacent to Prescott National Forest, is also home to Yavapai College, Embry-Riddle University and an extension of Northern Arizona University.

El Paso’s historic Concordia Cemetery is home to 60,000 beloved—and not so beloved—souls, including the notorious gunslinger John Wesley Hardin. Walk the grounds and remember the heroes, heroines and common folk who rest eternally in Concordia—Buffalo Soldiers, Texas Rangers, Civil War veterans, early Mormon pioneers and numerous local legends.

Deep in the heart of Trans-Pecos Texas, Fort Davis National Historic Site is one of the finest examples of Texas frontier forts built in the 1850s to protect travelers between San Antonio and El Paso. In active service to 1891, Fort Davis has been restored and is managed by the National Park Service as a frontier military living history center.

ConcordiaCemetery.org

NPS.gov

Visit-Prescott.com

READERS’ CHOICE: Boot Hill Cemetery, Dodge City, KS

READERS’ CHOICE: Fort Laramie National Historic Site Fort Laramie, WY

READERS’ CHOICE: Tombstone, AZ T R U E

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Tucson’s Best* Best Kept Secret...

BEST HISTORIC RAILROAD OF THE WEST Cumbres & Toltec Scenic Railroad Chama, NM/Antonito, CO Built originally as part of the San Juan Extension of the Denver & Rio Grande Western Railroad in 1880, the Cumbres & Toltec Scenic Railroad is one of the most celebrated historic rail lines in the West, and the only one between two states. The Cumbres & Toltec operates from late May to late October, and includes numerous special trains and excursions on the 64-mile line between Chama, New Mexico, and Antonito, Colorado. The National Historic Landmark steam-driven train is a thrill ride of spectacular views across the San Juan Mountains and Conejos Valley. CumbresToltec.com

READERS’ CHOICE: Georgetown Loop Railroad Georgetown, CO and Durango & Silverton Narrow Gauge Railroad, Durango, CO

No worries about what to do, where to eat, or what to wear. It’s all friends and family, and the attire is casual. Enjoy horseback riding, hiking and rock climbing, delicious food, and delightful camaraderie. The perfect fix for your busy lifestyle.

WhiteStallion.com 520.297.0252

*Voted #1 of 130 Hotels in Tucson on TripAdvisor for 5 Consecutive Years.

84 Yellowstone William Henry Jackson courageously packed his equipment as high as his horses and mules would take him to record the geology of the region high above Yellowstone Valley for the Hayden Survey. – COURTESY LIBRARY OF CONGRESS – T R U E

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85 Custer’s Black Hills Expedition England-born, Minnesota-raised photographer William H. Illingworth had earned a strong reputation as a photographer on army expeditions on the Northern Plains when he was hired in 1874 to accompany the famous Custer Expedition into the Black Hills. – True WesT Archives –

Best Preservation of a Historic Western Building Strater Hotel, Durango, CO The Strater Hotel in the historic district of Durango, Colorado, is the perfect place to stay when vacationing in the Animas River Valley city made internationally famous by the Durango & Silverton Narrow Gauge Railroad. Opened in 1887, the Strater is a landmark hotel, luxuriously maintained and

preserved with antiques throughout the historic inn and its well-appointed rooms. Don’t miss an evening in the Diamond Belle Saloon and dinner in the Mahogany Grill. Strater.com

ReadeRs’ ChoiCe: Sheridan Inn, Sheridan, WY

Best Preserved Historic trail Chisholm Trail in Texas Oklahoma and Kansas

Dinosours

The Chisholm Trail was established in 1867 with the first cattle drive to Abilene, Kansas. During the next 18 years, 5 million head of cattle were driven along it from Texas to Kansas. The trail had a great economic impact on the country, and served as backdrop to many Old West legends. In 2017, communities along the route from Southern Texas to Abilene, Kansas, will celebrate the sesquicentennial of the cattle trail that changed the West. Abilene, Kansas, is planning a major event Labor Day Weekend in September 2017. ChisholmTrail150.org

ReadeRs’ ChoiCe: Santa Fe Trail

ROW CANYON CARCHAEOLOGICAL CENTER

to the

The Great War

The past just got closer for adults and teens crowcanyon.org 800.422.8975 | Cortez, CO t r u e

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CST 2059347-50 CST 2053497-50

archaeology tours and digs

86 Oreana, Nevada Clarence King’s 40th Parallel Survey team’s trail across the Great Basin of Nevada included recording the communities and mining camps along their route. Photographer Timothy H. O’Sullivan’s photo of Oreana, taken in 1867, captures the town’s mills in action, when they were some of the busiest in the state. – COURTESY LIBRARY OF CONGRESS –

BEST PRESERVATION EFFORT OF THE WEST Dodge City, KS Known as the “Queen of the Cowtowns,” Dodge City is dedicated to celebrating and preserving its 19th-century history. Start at Dodge City’s Visitor Center and take the historic walking tour of the city. While in Dodge City, don’t miss visiting the Santa Fe Trail Rut Site National Park, the MuellerSchmidt House and Fort Dodge (Kansas Soldiers Home). VisitDodgeCity.org

READERS’ CHOICE: National Ranching Heritage Center, Lubbock, TX

BEST “WHO SLEPT HERE” HOTEL Hotel Colorado, Glenwood Springs, CO Since 1893, the luxurious Hotel Colorado, a “Grande Dame of the Rockies,” has hosted presidents, celebrities and the rich and famous. Today, the Glenwood Springs landmark welcomes guests from around the world to enjoy its famous hospitality, fine dining and relaxing Rocky Mountain

atmosphere. A favorite of Presidents Theodore Roosevelt and William Howard Taft, the hotel was also frequented by numerous famous and infamous people, including “The Unsinkable” Molly Brown. Visitors wanting a special treat should request a stay in the Molly Brown Suite. HotelColorado.com

READERS’ CHOICE: The Occidental, Buffalo, WY

Petrified Wood & Art Gallery Boot Hill Cowboy Cemetery Visit one of Texas’ most historic cemeteries. Front Street Revue – Old West Show John Wesley Hardin, John Selman, Buffalo Mansion on the Hill Museum Soldiers, and the only dedicated Chinese (circa 1887) Cemetery in the state.

Lake McConaughy Call 800-658-4390

for a free Visitors Packet. JOHN WESLEY HARDIN 1853 ~ 1895

OgallalaTrails.com Petrified Wood & Art Gallery Boot Hill Cowboy Cemetery (Self-Guided Walking Tour) Mansion on the Hill Museum (circa 1887) Lake McConaughy

Learn about the movers and shakers that forged the Old West. Veterans from the War of 1812 through recent conflicts, as well as “The World’s Tallest Man,” reside in permanency. Learn about former leaders of the Mexican Revolutions who were buried at Concordia.

Join the Secret Society of John Wesley Hardin - August 19, 2017 at 6 p.m., to commemorate John Wesley Hardin’s demise—and on October 21, 2017, from 11:00 a.m. - 3:00 p.m., for the annual “Walk Through History.” Monthly Ghost Tours, 1st and 2nd Saturday of each month. 9 p.m. - 11 p. m. Reservations Required: 915-274-9531.

Call 800-658-4390

for a free Visitors Packet.

OgallalaTrails.com Sponsored by the Keith County Visitors Committee

Don’t miss Dia De Los Muertos; Day of the Dead, October 28, 2017, from 2 p.m. to 8 p.m. Tours, shrines, exhibits and more. 3700 East Yandell • El Paso, Texas T R U E

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87 Zuni Pueblo In 1873, Timothy H. O’Sullivan accompanied Lt. George H. Wheeler on his survey across the Four Corners of Arizona, Utah, Colorado and New Mexico. His talent as a photographer is equaled by his talent to recognize the significance of his subject matter, including the ancient Zuni Pueblo in New Mexico Territory. – COURTESY LIBRARY OF CONGRESS –

BEST HERITAGE HOTEL The Irma Hotel, WY Built by Buffalo Bill Cody in 1902 and named after his daughter, the Irma Hotel is still “a gem” just outside the east entrance of Yellowstone National Park. Relax in modern accommodations or choose to stay in historic rooms enjoyed by Frederic Remington, Annie Oakley, Calamity Jane or Bill Cody, himself. Don’t miss the restaurant and historic saloon with the cherrywood bar, a gift to Cody from Britain’s Queen Victoria.

BEST HERITAGE BED & BREAKFAST Boot Hill Bed & Breakfast, Dodge City, KS Built in 1927, the Boot Hill Bed & Breakfast is located in the Burr House, a Dutch Colonial Revival brick home on the National Register of Historic Buildings. Located at the top of Boot Hill, it is a wonderful and relaxing place to call home for a few days within easy walking and driving distance of Dodge City’s historic sites and museums.

IrmaHotel.com

BootHillDodgeCity.com

READERS’ CHOICE: The Strater Hotel, Durango, CO

READERS’ CHOICE: Gandy Dancer Inn, Chama, NM

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BEST HISTORIC SALOON OF THE WEST Big Nose Kates, Tombstone, AZ Big Nose Kate’s Saloon stands in the same location as the Grand Hotel built in 1880. The night before the “Gunfight Behind the OK Corral,” on October 26, 1881, Ike Clanton and the two McLaury brothers were guests in the Grand. While the original hotel burned in the great fire of May 25, 1882, the saloon has restored the building, moving from the basem*nt to the main floor the only bar to survive the fire. So don’t miss a chance to enjoy a cold beverage and meal on the same long bar that hosted the infamous lawmen and outlaws that made Tombstone “the town too tough to die.” BigNoseKate.com

READERS’ CHOICE: Saloon #10, Deadwood, SD

NSA

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www.kansascattletowns.org

Come explore Dalton Raid history & re-trace the foot steps they took that fateful day in 1892!

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114 1/2 N. Douglas • Ellsworth, KS 67439

COFFEYVILLE KANSAS

Abilene - abilenekansas.org Caldwell - caldwellkansas.com Wichita - visitwichita.com Newton - thenewtonchamber.org Ellsworth - goellsworth.com Dodge City - boothill.org K

Abilene • 800-569-5915 Wichita • 800-288-9424 Ellsworth • 785-472-4071 Caldwell • 620-845-6666 Abilene • 800-569-5915 Wichita • 800-288-9424 Newton • 800-899-0455 Ellsworth • 785-472-4071 Caldwell • 620-845-6666

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Relive the days of the Drover as he celebrated the end of the long dusty cattle drive up from Texas. Visit the real cattle towns and experience the Cowboy legends of Abilene, Ellsworth, Newton, Wichita, and Caldwell, Kansas.

Relive the days of the Drover as he celebrated the end of a long dusty cattle drive up form Texas. Visit the real cattle towns and experience the Cowboy legends of Abilene, Ellsworth, Newton, Wichita, Caldwell and Dodge City, Kansas.

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114 1/2 N. Douglas Ellsworth, KS 67439 KansasCattleTowns.org

Call for a FREE visitors guide

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BEST HISTORIC RESTAURANT Buckhorn Exchange, Denver, CO

PHOTO BY TRINI HANK

Legendary hospitality for generations 501 S. Main St. • Pendleton, OR 97801 541-276-7411 • 800-547-8911

travelpendleton.com

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Opened in 1893, the Buckhorn Exchange holds Colorado’s first liquor license. Back then, Denver railroad workers scrambled every Friday to exchange their paychecks for gold and a token for a free lunch and a beer, which filled the restaurant’s register. Today, the National Historic Landmark welcomes guests to dine at lunch or dinner and enjoy the menu known for its gourmet wild game, buffalo prime rib and classic desserts. Buckhorn.com

READERS’ CHOICE: The Palace Saloon, Prescott, AZ

BEST CHUCKWAGON COOK-OFF Cheyenne Frontier Days, Cheyenne, WY An annual highlight of the world-famous annual Cheyenne Frontier Days in Cheyenne, Wyoming, the Chuckwagon Cook-Off celebrates the heritage of chuckwagon cooking on the open range and cattle drives that brought cattle from Texas to Wyoming. The chuckwagon cooks

hold demonstrations and tastings for four days leading up to the championship event as part of Cheyenne Frontier Days, two weeks of events held every July. CFRodeo.com

READERS’ CHOICE: Big Horn Heritage Days, Sheridan, WY

BEST CHUCKWAGON SHOW & SUPPER Lincoln County Cowboy Symposium, Ruidoso, NM Founded by legendary New Mexico cowboy singer Ray Reed in 1990, the Lincoln County Cowboy Symposium has grown from its humble roots in Glencoe, New Mexico, to one of the biggest annual festivals celebrating the cowboy way of life. Held at the Ruidoso Downs Race Track & Casino every October, the three days offer visitors world-class cowboy music, a championship chuckwagon cook-off, numerous events for the whole family and a Western Expo with over 110 vendors. CowboySyposium.com

READERS’ CHOICE: National Cowboy Symposium & Celebration, Lubbock, TX

88 Bullion Mine Best known as a California landscape photographer, Carleton E. Watkins made his living from selling photographs, but he was not a capable businessman, and lost it in 1875. He then ventured out in the mid-1870s to create a “New Series” of images he could sell, revisiting many of his prior subjects and locations, including mining camps such as the Bullion Mine, near Virginia City, Nevada. – COURTESY THE J. PAUL GETTY MUSEUM AT THE GETTY CENTER –

BANDERA, TEXAS

Cowboy Capital of the World® Mark your calendars now and hit the trail for a bit of the true west in Bandera. Western Entertainment and Nightly Music Summer Rodeos on weekends Cowboy Mardi Gras – February 16th - 18th Wild Hog Explosion – March 18th Bandera ProRodeo Association PRCA Rodeo – May 26th - 28th RiverFest – June 24th National Day of the American Cowboy – July 22nd Celebrate Bandera – September 1st - 3rd Ranch Heritage Day – October 21st

830-796-3045

BanderaCowboyCapital.com Harold Warp

PONY EXPRESS STATION

See How America Grew Over 50,000 historic items displayed in the order of their development in 26 buildings! HIGHLIGHTS INCLUDE

89 The White House In 1873, Timothy H. O’Sullivan’s photographic work for the Wheeler Survey brought him to the Navajo Reservation where he found inspiration in Canyon de Chelly. His image of the White House Ruin is one of the most iconic of his career. – COURTESY LIBRARY OF CONGRESS –

• Buggies • Indian Stockade • Wagons • Pioneer Depot • Harness • Livery Barn • Guns • Over 350 Autos • Sod House • 100 Tractors • 7 Generations of Kitchens • Buffalo Bill’s Saddle • 20 Historic Airplanes Rated by True West 3 years running as:

Best Pioneer History Collection. Adjoining

MOTEL & CAMPGROUND

(800) 445-4447

138 E Hwy 6, Minden NE 68959

www.pioneervillage.org

Opening May 15th, 2017 Step Back in time to the 1890’s time Cody to theis1890’s inStep OldBack Trailin Town. one of in Old Trail Town. Cody is one of is Wyoming’s most popular sites and Wyoming’s most popular sites andtois conveniently located on the road conveniently locatedPark. on theThis road Yellowstone National is to not Yellowstone National Park. This is Hollywood, this is the real West!not Hollywood, this is the real West!

Old Trail Trail Town Town •• Cody, Cody, WY. WY. 82414 82414 Old T R U E

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90 Red Buttes On August 24, 1870, Ferdinand V. Hayden’s camp of the U.S. Geological Survey enjoyed a noon meal (note the stove, right) near Red Buttes, Wyoming Territory. Hayden, wearing a dark jacket, sits at far end of table in the William Henry Jackson photograph. – COURTESY LIBRARY OF CONGRESS –

BEST HERITAGE GUEST RANCH White Stallion Ranch, Tucson, AZ Tucson’s famous White Stallion Guest Ranch welcomes guests with Old West hospitality, hearty Western food, individual casitas and an old-style lodge. Western trail riding still is the best way to enjoy the saguaro-studded desert that surrounds the ranch headquarters, where several Western movies were filmed. WhiteStallion.com

READERS’ CHOICE: Tanque Verde Ranch, Wickenburg, AZ

BEST COWBOY POETRY GATHERING National Cowboy Symposium & Celebration, Lubbock, TX The National Cowboy Symposium & Celebration is held every September in Lubbock, Texas, and is one of the biggest annual events in the West Texas city. The Cowboy Poetry Gathering, with dozens of performers, is one of the centerpieces of

the three-day festival, which includes a chuckwagon cook-off, numerous Western, equestrian, cowboy and Native heritage demonstrations, family events, and the everpopular famous Parade of the Horse. Cowboy.org

READERS’ CHOICE: National Cowboy Poetry Gathering, Elko, NV

Welcomes

Robert FUller

Download the laramie app:

star of the western TV show Laramie (1959-1963)

Come to the “Old West” for the 2017 Laramie Jubilee Days. Our Grand Marshall will be Mr. Robert Fuller from the western TV show Laramie. He will talk about his memories of the show and sign autographs at the nightly rodeo and other special events, July 14-15. Make plans to have a dinner with Robert at the Hilton Inn on the evening of July 15th. (For dinner tickets and full schedule go to www.visitlaramie.org and click on Robert Fuller)

Robert Fuller Played Jess Harper

Laramie, Wyoming - Book online

ALBANY • Centennial • Rock River •Woods Landing Download maps and brochures!

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www.visitlaramie.org 1-800-445-5303

H i s t o ry & A dv e n t u r e

BEST COWBOY MUSIC GATHERING Heber Valley Western Music & Cowboy Gathering, Heber City, UT

BEST OLD WEST MOUNTED RE-ENACTMENT Defeat of Jesse James Days Northfield, MN

In 2017, the Heber Valley Western Music & Cowboy Gathering will be celebrating its 23rd year at the annual festival in Heber Valley, Utah, in late October. From regional favorite to international stars of Western music and cowboy poetry, the Heber Valley festival has entertainment for all ages, including the Mountain Man Traders Camp, Buckaroo Fair and mounted Shooters events.

Held the first weekend after Labor Day every September in Northfield, Minnesota, the Defeat of Jesse James Days offer a thrill-a-minute mounted re-enactment of the failed James-Younger Gang robbery of Northfield’s First National Bank on September 7, 1876. The three-day event includes programming for all ages, but the highlight every day is the Raid Re-enactment—two on Friday, four on Saturday and two on Sunday—with enough action in every 30-minute show to ensure you leave believing you were there on that fateful day in 1876.

HeberValleyCowboyPoetry.com

READERS’ CHOICE: Red Steagall Cowboy Gathering & Western Swing Festival Fort Worth, TX

DJJD.org

READERS’ CHOICE: Buffalo Soldier Society of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM

BEST OLD WEST RE-ENACTMENT GROUP Six Guns & Shady Ladies, El Paso, TX The El Paso-based troupe Six Guns & Shady Ladies has entertained audiences all across the country since Bernie and Melissa Sargent founded it in 1998. With nearly 50 skits, the Wild West re-enactment group brings humor and history to every show, with thrilling gunfights, including the famous “Four Dead in Five Seconds.” SixGunsAndShadyLadies.Homestead.com

READERS’ CHOICE: Prescott Regulators & Their Shady Ladies, Prescott, AZ

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91 John K. Hillers John K. Hillers quickly learned photography on the 1872 Powell Expedition, working his way up from oarsman to primary cameraman for Powell’s Geological Survey. He was photographed working with negatives in the Survey’s camp on the Aquarius Plateau of the Utah Territory. – COURTESY LIBRARY OF CONGRESS –

92 William Henry Jackson In 1871, William Henry Jackson (right, with pipe) was the official photographer on the Hayden Survey of Yellowstone. He used a large format camera and made photographs using the “wet plate process.” Jackson had five to seven men with mules to carry his 300 pounds of gear. – COURTESY YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK –

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s z

r t

THOSE BRAVE ENOUGH to explore T H E B ES T OF T HE W EST TH IN BUFFALO & KAYCEE, wyoming

Experience THE OLD WEST WEST... ... Explore THE NEW WEST

BUFFALOwyo.com kayceewyoming.org 800•227•5122

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93 Shoshone Cañon and Falls In 1868, Timothy H. O’Sullivan accompanied the Clarence King Survey of the 40th Parallel across the Great Basin. O’Sullivan’s images of the Snake River, Shoshone Canyon and Falls remain some of his finest images, many of which captured the geology and fellow members of the survey party, providing scale to the immensity of the scene. – Courtesy Library of Congress –

Best Wild West sHoW Buffalo Bill Wild West Show, Cody, WY The Rocky Mountain Dance Theatre’s Buffalo Bill Wild West Show premiered in 2016 in the theatre and has already scheduled its second exciting year for June 21-July 29, 2017, Wednesday to Saturday evenings with a matinee every Saturday. Held in the Historic Cody Theatre in downtown Cody, the musical celebrates Buffalo Bill Cody’s dream of becoming the

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world’s most famous entertainer, and includes cast members portraying many of the showman’s famous friends, including Annie Oakley, Sitting Bull and Wild Bill Hickok. CodyWildWestShow.com

ReadeRs’ ChoiCe: Whiskey Row Shootout, Prescott, AZ

Best Historic Western rodeo Pendleton Round-Up, Pendleton, OR Since 1910, the Pendleton Round-Up has been held in the same location with no in-arena advertising. The Oregon Heritage Culture Event continues as the “epic drama of the West” with its wooden chutes and unique, timed run-down alley. PendletonRoundUp.com

ReadeRs’ ChoiCe: The World’s Oldest Rodeo, Prescott, AZ

A WEEKEND AWAY IN

Ft Phil Kearny (fortphilkearny.com), located on the historic Bozeman Trail. After lunch, plan to spend a few hours exploring The Brinton Museum (4) (brintonmuseum.org) in Big Horn for a look at one of the most robust collections of Indian and western artifacts in the EXPERIENCE SHERIDAN’S HISTORIC ATTRACTIONS in 48 whirlwind hours West, then shop for a new pair of cowboy boots in Historic Downtown old west photo archive, a remarkable collecDay 1. Rise and shine in either the “Sitting Sheridan (5). The Sheridan County Bull Room” or “Wild Bill Hickok” suite at the tion of saddles, and Indian artifacts, the Don Museum boasts a robust archive of King Museum offers a glimpse at life in the Sheridan Inn (1) (sheridaninn.com), Buffalo Bill Cody’s former stomping West through the years. Before dinner, take a historical images, artifacts and letters, and serves as an excellent exclamation grounds. Each room at the Inn is unique tour of the Trail End State Historic Site (3) point on your tour. After dinner, kick up and named for important figures in Buffalo (trailend.co). Built in Flemish Revival style, Bill’s life. After breakfast, take a drive to the Trail End mansion examines an elegantly your boots on the porch of the Historic different aspect of Wyoming’s rich and colorful Sheridan Inn the way Buffalo Bill once the Little Bighorn National Monument, did, and watch the sun set on your time history, and shouldn’t be missed. the site of the crucial 1876 battle between in Sheridan. George Armstrong Custer and the Sioux. Day 2. Rise to beat the crowds of history For more on these, and other adventures After, return to town and enjoy the old west buffs and tour Indian battle sites and former in Sheridan, please find us on Facebook, military posts, including the Rosebud and marvels at the Don King Museum (2) Twitter and Instagram, and visit us online (kingssaddlery.com). Housing everything Connor Battlefields, the site of the Wagon at www.sheridanwyoming.org. Box Fight, and finally picturesque from horse-drawn hearses, an incredible

Sheridan, WYOMING

Wyoming’s emerald gem, Sheridan blends quintessential cowboy culture, modern west allure, and country charm.

Buffalo Bill CODY in SHERIDAN - 122 Years Ago Constructed in 1892 as part of a railway extension program, the Sheridan Inn was the first building in the area furnished with electrical power and bathtubs, giving adventurous travelers a taste of Eastern luxury in the West and was considered the finest hotel between Chicago and San Francisco. Buffalo Bill Cody frequented the Sheridan Inn as part owner and held auditions for his Wild West Show from the iconic front porch of the Inn.

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PLAN pLAnTO TOATTEND ATTenDTHE 31stAnnuAL ANNUAL 37th 35th 34th ANNUAL

HELLS CANYON MULE DAYS ENTERPRISE, OREGON Rated "E" for Everyone!

The Weekend Weekend After After Labor The Labor Day Day

SepTember9-10-11, 8-9-10, SepTember 2016 SEPTEMBER 9-10-11, 2011 SEPTEMBER 5-6-7, 2017 2014 Enterprise, Oregon MULE SHOW MULE SHOW & P. SALE MULE SHOW && T. SALE MULE SHOW SALE NON-MOTORIZED PARADE COWBOY POETRY GATHERING NON-MOTORIZED PARADE NON-MOTORIZED PARADE SAT. NIGHT PIT B-B-Q SAT. NIGHT B-B-Q MULE CLINICS SAT. NIGHT B-B-Q VINTIQUES SHOW– MULECLINIC CLINICS QUILT SHOW – MULE NON-MOTORIZED PARADE QUILT SHOW • MULE CLINIC OLD WORLD OXEN OLD WORLD OXEN PIT B-B-Q DINNER D.O. COOK-OFF D.O. COOK-OFF – COWBOY CHURCH D.O. COOK-OFF – COWBOY CHURCH COWBOYOLD CHURCH – D.O. WORLD OXENCOOK-OFF COWBOY POETRY GATHERING COWBOY POETRY POETRY GATHERING VENDORS/EXHIBITS & WESTERN GEAR COWBOY VENDORS/EXHIBITS & GATHERING WESTERN GEAR VENDORS/EXHIBITS & WESTERN ART MULE ARTIST – BONNIE SHIELDS VENDORS/EXHIBITS & WESTERN ART FEATURED TENNESSEE MULE ARTIST: FEATURED TENNESEEE MULE ARTIST SAT. NIGHTSHIELDS CONCERT BONNIE FEATURED TENNESSEE MULE ARTIST BONNIE SHIELDS SHIELDS BONNIE Join the fun! Join

SHOW INFO: SONDRA LOZIER 888-323-3271 or C-541-263-0104 541-263-0104 541-426-3271 visit: www.hellscanyonmuledays.com EXPERIENCE A GREAT TIME IN N.E. OREGON

Western History For All Generations

94 First Photo of Yosemite Charles Leander Weed was an early Sacramento, California, photographer. Entrepreneur James Hutching brought Weed to Yosemite to be the first photographer to take images of the spectacular valley in June 1859, including Yosemite Falls from the south bank of the Merced River. – COURTESY UC BERKELEY, BANCROFT LIBRARY –

Stuhr

Museum

Grand Island, NE (308 385-5316) www.stuhrmuseum.org Facebook.com/StuhrMuseum T R U E

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95 Mariposa Trail In 1864, Charles Leander Weed returned to photograph Yosemite Valley with his large-format camera that used 22 x 28-inch glass plates. His 30 albumen prints, published by Lawrence & Houseworth, earned him the 1867 Paris International Exhibition’s first-place bronze medal. – TRUE WEST ARCHIVES –

96 Two Whistles For his survey of North American Indians in 1908, ethnologist and photographer Edward Curtis photographed an Absaroke (Crow) man wearing traditional face paint, medicine hawk headdress, buckskin shirt and shell necklaces.

Knight Museum and Sandhills Center

– COURTESY LIBRARY OF CONGRESS –

On the edge of the Nebraska Sandhills. Ne A Railroad town. A Cow-town. An Ag town. A Where history W runs deep. Largest Genealogy Center in Western Nebraska

Building i the h Best B Hometown H in i America

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97 Powell’s Boat Oarsman-turned-Second Powell Expedition photographer John K. Hillers took this photo of John Wesley Powell’s famous boat with its mounted chair on the banks of the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon. The image perfectly reflects the simplicity and the immensity of the journey. – COURTESY LIBRARY OF CONGRESS –

98 The Messenger As John Wesley Powell’s photographer on the Powell Survey in 1874, John K. Hillers photographed many of the American Indians they met during the survey’s geologic work, including “The Messenger” in full dress. – COURTESY LIBRARY OF CONGRESS –

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99 Malakoff Diggins In 1871, Carleton E. Watkins photographed the expansive environmental affects of hydraulic mining at the Malakoff Diggins in North Bloomfield, California. The San Francisco photographer’s images of mining provide an insightful view of the industrialization of the West—and the largest hydraulic operation in California history. Today, Malakoff Diggins State Park provides visitors an insightful view on mining history in the West. – COURTESY THE J. PAUL GETTY MUSEUM AT THE GETTY CENTER –

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for January 2017

I

the artists of taos Scottsdale, AZ, January 10- April 20: This exhibition features many of the finest artworks by members of the Taos Society of Artists—one of the most influential and highly acclaimed artist groups in the nation’s history. 480-686-9539 • ScottsdaleMuseumWest.org ART

S HO W

Carefree fine art & Wine festival Carefree, AZ, January 20-22: High Sonoran Desert town closes its streets for Southwestern and American Indian art show and wine tastings. 480-837-5637 • ThunderbirdArtists.com

litChfield Park native ameriCan arts festival Litchfield Park, AZ, January 13-15: The 25th annual gathering of American Indian artists who display jewelry, pottery, katsinas and beadwork. 623-935-9040 • Litchfield-Park.org

HE RITAG E

R O DEO

F EST I VA LS

Polar Bear stomP Eagle Nest, NM, January 1: Kick off the new year with an hour-long snow hike around Eagle Nest Lake State Park; end with a cup of hot chocolate. 575-377-3010 • AngelFireChamber.org

CoWBoys of Color rodeo Fort Worth, TX, January 13: Held since 1995, this rodeo brings together cowboys from diverse cultures to celebrate their Western heritage. 817-922-9999 • CowboysOfColor.org

fort Worth stoCk shoW & rodeo Fort Worth, TX, Opens January 13-February 4: Held since 1896, Fort Worth’s exposition livestock show and rodeo attract cowboys to its auctions, livestock and horse shows, rodeos and concerts. 817-877-2400 • FWSSR.com PBr Built tough Oklahoma City, OK, January 21-22: Witness the “toughest sport on dirt” in this family-friendly experience of top professional bull riding. 800-745-3000 • VisitOKC.com

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BY JOHN LANGELLIER

JIM YOUNG: FORGOTTEN ARIZONA PIONEER FINALLY GETS HIS DUE This snapshot taken of Jim Young (left) in Tombstone, Arizona, in July 1927, reveals how, even in old age, he remained an imposing figure. In his younger days, Young acted as a bodyguard for John Slaughter (below) during his weekly poker games in Bisbee. With a shotgunwielding Young stationed outside, no one ever attempted to hijack the pot. – YOUNG PHOTO COURTESY ARIZONA STATE ARCHIVES / YOUNG ILLUSTRATION BY BOB BOZE BELL –

O

n January 16, Martin Luther King Day, Bob Boze Bell and John Langellier will recognize a long overlooked character linked to the “Town Too Tough to Die” by placing a marker on Jim Young’s grave in Tucson, Arizona. Standing more than six feet tall, Young, like many other antebellum blacks, did not know the date of his birth nor even the names of his parents. After the Civil War, the slave-turnedfreedman headed west, where he eventually hooked up with “Texas” John Slaughter, in the Lone Star State, who was on the move to New Mexico and Arizona Territories. When Young reached Arizona in the 1870s, he worked for Slaughter as a bodyguard and cowhand. Young also worked in the mines and staked a claim for himself. While defending his claim, he backed down “Buckskin Frank” Leslie not once, but twice! He even turned to boxing. In 1883, he went four rounds with pugilist Neil

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McLeod, who had considerably more experience in the ring, and bested his opponent, despite a weight disadvantage of 10 pounds. Tradition has it that, the next year, Young faced the formidable John L. Sullivan, who was making a swing through the West to take on local champions. Young remained in southern Arizona past the age of 90. The 1930 U.S. census carried him on the rolls at age 86 and listed his religion as “Hindu!” Regrettably, unlike Tombstone’s famous and sometimes infamous denizens, such as the Earps and Clantons, little of Young’s final days are known, although he did work as a caretaker at Holy Hope Cemetery, which is where, after his death on January 19, 1935, this destitute, weary player in the drama of Arizona’s halcyon days was laid to rest. For all these years, Young’s grave has had no headstone. When I was researching the Apache Kid, the unsung Arizona pioneer’s name surfaced. I unearthed tantalizing glimpses into Young’s life, including an obituary that led me to his unmarked grave. If you would like to join True West’s ceremony, find out more details by visiting TWMag.com and searching for “Cemetery Marker Ceremony for Tombstone’s Unsung Hero.”

NEW YEAR’S DAY BRUNCH TRAIN Durango, CO, January 1: Start the New Year aboard the Durango & Silverton Narrow Gauge Railroad’s steam-powered train on this trip reminiscent of 19th-century travel. 888-827-4607 • DurangoTrain.com

COLORADO INDIAN MARKET AND SOUTHWEST SHOWCASE Denver, CO, January 20-22: Held since 1981, this Southwest market showcases American Indian art and tribal performances for a full experience. 972-398-0052 • IndianMarket.net

NATIONAL WESTERN STOCK SHOW Denver, CO, January 7-22: Since 1906, this show hosts livestock and horse sales and seminars, plus rodeo events, at National Western Complex. 303-296-6977 • NationalWestern.com

BRIAN LEBEL’S HIGH NOON SHOW & AUCTION Mesa, AZ, January 21-22: The first firearm to be forensically linked to the Battle of the Little Big Horn (shown) is among the auction items up for bid; also enjoy a showcase of Western Americana artifacts. 480-779-9378 • OldWestEvents.com

FOR JANUARY 2017

TRUE WESTERNER OF THE YEAR Scottsdale, AZ, January 19: Join True West Magazine’s celebration at this year’s “Best Western Museum” to honor Brian Lebel as our True Westerner. 888-687-1881 • TWMag.com NATIONAL COWBOY POETRY GATHERING Elko, NV, Jan. 30-Feb. 4: Celebrate cowboy and ranch lifestyles through music and poetry at this gathering held at the Western Folklife Center. 888-880-5885 • WesternFolkLife.org

TWMag.com:

View Western events on our website.

®

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GET ’EM Order yours before they are gone!

True West is one of the most collectible history magazines in the world. (Back issues have sold for as high as $300!) Collect your favorites now, as the love for history will never go out of date!

Jan-2000 Wild Bill

Aug/Sep-2001 Wild Bill

Aug/Sep-2002 Defeat of Jesse James

Jul-2003 Doc & Wyatt

Dec-2006 Buffalo Gals & Guys

Oct-2006 Tombstone/125th OK Corral

Apr-2011 True Grit/Bridges & Wayne

Aug-2012 Butch and Sundance

Almost Gone!

Almost Gone!

Almost Gone!

Jan-2001 Topless Gunfighter

Almost Gone!

Feb/Mar-2001 Wyatt Earp

Feb-Mar-2003 Guns that won the West

Aug-2004 John Wesley Hardin

Jan-2003 Historical Photos

Jan-2007 Cowboys ae indians

Nov/Dec-2008 Mickey Free

Sep-2009 500 Yrs Before Cowboys

Nov/Dec-2010 Black Warriors of the West

Aug-2013 Tombstone-The Walk Down

Dec-2014 Women Who Left Their Mark

Dec-15 First Mountain Man

Apr-2016 Lonesome Dove

WHILE THEY LAST! Complete Your Collection 2000 o o o o o o o o o o

2005

Jan: Buffalo Bill Mar: Richard Farnsworth May: Samuel Walker Jun: Frontier Half-Bloods Jul: Billy & the Kids Aug: John Wayne Sep: Border Breed Oct: Halloween Issue Nov: Apache Scout Dec: Mountain Men

o o o o o o o o o o

Jan/Feb: Rare Photos Mar: Deadwood/McShane Apr: 77 Sunset Trips May: Trains/Collector’s Edition Jun: Jesus Out West Jul: All Things Cowboy Aug: History of Western Wear Sep: Gambling Oct: Blaze Away/Wyattt Nov/Dec: Gay Western? Killer DVDs

o o o o o o o o o o

Jan/Feb: Mexican Insurgents Mar: Kit Carson Apr: I’ve Been Everywhere, Man May: The Racial Frontier Jun: Playing Sports in the OW Jul/Aug: Dude! Where’s My Ranch? Sep: Indian Yell Oct: Tombstone/125th Ok Corral Nov: Gambling Dec: Buffalo Gals & Guys

o o o o o o o o o o

Jan/Feb: Cowboys Are Indians Mar: Trains/Jim Clark Apr: Western Travel May: Dreamscape Desperado/Billy Jun: Collecting the West/Photos Jul: Man Who Saved The West Aug: Western Media/Best Reads Sep: Endurance Of The Horse Oct: 3:10 To Yuma Nov/Dec: Brad Pitt & Jesse James

o o o o o o o o

Jan/Feb: Pat Garrett/No Country Mar: Who Killed the Train? Apr: Travel/Geronimo May: Who Stole Buffalo Bill’s Home? Jun: The Last Cowboy President? Jul: Secrets of Our Nat’l Parks/Teddy Aug: Kendricks Northern CBs/Photos Sep: Saloons & Stagecoaches

2001

2006

o Jan: Topless Gunfighter o May/Jun: Custer o Jul: Cowboys & Cowtowns

2002 o Aug/Sep: Jesse James o Oct: Billy On The Brain o Nov/Dec: Butch & Sundance

2003 o Jan: 50 Historical Photos o Feb/Mar: 50 Guns o Apr: John Wayne o Spring: Jackalope Creator Dies o May/Jun: Custer Killer o Jul: Doc & Wyatt o Aug/Sep: A General Named Dorothy o Oct: Vera McGinnis o Nov/Dec: Worst Westerns Ever

2004 o o o o o o o o o o

Jan/Feb: Six Guns Mar: Fakes/Fake Doc April/Travel: Visit the Old West May:Iron Horse/Sacred Dogs Jun: HBO’s Deadwood Jul: 17 Legends Aug: JW Hardin Sep: Wild Bunch Oct: Bill Pickett Nov/Dec: Dale Evans

2007

2008

o Oct: Charlie Russell o Nov/Dec: Mickey Free

2009 o o o o o o o o o o

Jan/Feb: Border Riders Mar: Poncho Villa Apr: Stagecoach May: Battle For The Alamo Jun: Custer’s Ride To Glory Jul: Am West, Then & Now Aug: Wild West Shows Sep: Vaquero/500 Yrs Before CBs Oct: Capturing Billy Nov/Dec: Chaco Canyon

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Jan/Feb: Top 10 Western Towns Mar: Trains/Pony Express Apr: OW Destinations/Clint Eastwood May: Legendary Sonny Jim Jun: Extreme Western Adventures Jul: Starvation Trail/AZ Rough Riders Aug: Digging Up Billy the Kid Sep: Classic Rodeo! Oct: Extraordinary Western Art Nov/Dec: Black Warriors of the West

o o o o o o o o o o

Jan/Feb: Sweethearts of the Rodeo Mar: 175th Anniv Battle of the Alamo Apr: Three True Grits May: Historic Ranches Jun: Tin Type Billy Jul: Viva, Outlaw Women! Aug: Was Geronimo A Terrorist? Sep: Western Museums/CBs & Aliens Oct: Hard Targets Nov/Dec: Butch Cassidy is Back

o o o o o o o

Feb: Az Crazy Road to Statehood Mar: Special Entertainment Issue Apr: Riding Shotgun with History May: The Outlaw Cowboys of NM Jun: Wyatt On The Set! July: Deadly Trackers Aug: How Did Butch & Sundance Die?

2010

2011

2012

o o o o

Sep: The Heros of Northfield Oct: Bravest Lawman You Never Nov: Armed & Courageous Dec: Legend of Climax Jim

o o o o o o o o o o o

Jan: Best of the West/John Wayne Feb: Rocky Mountain Rangers Apr: US Marshals May: Texas Rangers Jun: Doc’s Last Gunfight Jul: Comanche Killers! Aug: Tombstone 20th Annv Sep: Ambushed on the Pecos Oct: Outlaws,Lawmen & Gunfighters Nov: Soiled Doves Dec: Cowboy Ground Zero

o o o o o o o o o o o o

Jan: Best 100 Historical Photos Feb: Assn. of Pat Garrett Mar: Stand-up Gunfights Apr: Wyatt Earp Alaska May: Tom Horn Jun: Custer Captured Jul: 50 Historical Gunfighter Photos Aug: Bigfoot Wallace/Train Robberies Sep: New Billy Photo/Top Museums Oct: Charlie Russell/Movie Hats Nov: Wild Bills's Last Gunfight Dec: Olive Oatman-Branded

2013

2014

2015 o Jan: 100 Historical Am. Indian Photos o Feb: Mountain Man-First Survivalists o Mar: Mickey Free/Severed Heads o Apr: Jack Stilwell-Forgotten Scout o May: Armed to Survive o Jun: Billy the Kid-Special Report o Jul: 50 Historical Photos-Panco Villa o Aug: Luke Short-Dodge City War o Sep: Crossing America-Lewis & Clark o Oct: Wyatt Earp in Hollywood o Nov: 22 Guns that Won the West o Dec: The First Mountain Man

See the complete collection of available back issues online at the True West Store!

Store.TrueWestMagazine.com 1-888-687-1881

Marshall Trimble is Arizona’s official historian and vice president of the Wild West History Association. His latest book is Arizona’s Outlaws and Lawmen; History Press, 2015. If you have a question, write: Ask the Marshall, P.O. Box 8008, Cave Creek, AZ 85327 or e-mail him at [emailprotected]

Indian Captives Freed Robert Matters Hilliard, Ohio

where “Curly Bill” Brocius was buried after lawman Wyatt Earp killed him at Iron Springs (now Mescal Springs) in 1882.

That’s hard to say as so many different tribes What happened in the took captives, but the last feud between John captives were probably Slaughter and Barney freed in the 1890s. Gallagher? Adult men were rarely, Edward Dingle if ever, taken alive, but Mesa, Arizona boys often grew up in Trouble between the the tribe and chose to two started sometime in remain. Same with girls Scott Zesch’s tale of Indian 1876, when John Slaughter and young women. While abductions on the Texas history offers dozens of frontier was named the “Best caught Barney Gallagher cheating during a poker accounts of rape, beatings, Book on Texas” by the TCU game at a Commerce abuse, enslavement and Library in Fort Worth. Street establishment in San brutality, we also see – COURTESY ST. MARTIN’S PRESS – Antonio, Texas. instances of captive Gallagher and a cowboy women marrying Indian men—Cynthia named Boyd followed Slaughter to John Ann Parker being a well-known example. Chisum’s ranch near Roswell, New Books sharing accounts written by Mexico, where Slaughter’s herd was captives include Gregory and Susan grazing. Gallagher had either pilfered Michno’s A Fate Worse than Death some of Slaughter’s cows or planned to and L.R. Bailey’s Indian Slave Trade do so. in the Southwest. Wild West History Gallagher had been drinking, and, in Association First Vice President Roy several accounts, had threatened to kill Young recommends Clinton L. Smith’s Slaughter. It’s unclear who fired first, but The Boy Captives and Scott Zesch’s The Slaughter didn’t miss. Captured: A True Story of Abduction by Indians on the Texas Frontier.

Where was Frank Patterson’s ranch in Cochise County? Randi O’Neal Whetstone, Arizona

Paul Lee Johnson’s 2012 book, The McLaurys in Tombstone, Arizona, notes that the McLaury family’s first ranch was near the Babocomari River in Arizona Territory, just north of the 1866 military post Camp Wallen. Frank Patterson’s nearby ranch was reportedly T R U E

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to sell screen rights. It was the ‘Golden Age’ of TV shows and Western-themed movies. There was money to be made— and history be damned. I’ve never found a historical reference to support this claim.”

Al Sieber was famous as a scout and Indian fighter, but why didn’t he get the Medal of Honor? Allen Fossenkemper Fountain Hills, Arizona

As chief of scouts for the U.S. Army, Sieber was a civilian. Only six civilians (including William F. “Buffalo Bill” Cody) were awarded the Medal of Honor. All of those were retracted in 1917, when the medal became exclusively a military

Was Clay Allison convicted of spying for the Confederacy and sentenced to be shot around May 1865, only to escape after killing his guard? Jonathan Smith Rodenberg, Lower Saxony, Germany

“To tell you the truth, this seems to be a 1950s myth, created during a time when hacks were ‘punching up’ Old West stories to meet the movie demand,” outlawlawman researcher Dennis McCown says. “So much in the 1950s is colored by a hope

Chief of Scouts Al Sieber

– TRUE WEST ARCHIVES –

When were the last captives of the Indian freed?

BY MARSHALL TRIMBLE

Until around the 1870s, profanity was considered much more offensive than it is today. Especially bad: terms with a religious bent (like “Jesus,” God damn” and even “Hell”). And saying such things in front of ladies was considered uncouth. During the Mexican-American War in the Southwest, settlers along New Mexico’s Rio Grande Valley referred to the rough and tumble Missouri volunteers as the “los goddammies” because of their frequent use of the word.

Did frontier trappers work in the Southwest region? Hub Whitt Thermopolis, Wyoming

100 Apache Scouts Apache scouts worked for the U.S. Army during the Apache Wars up to 1886, although the last scout retired in the 1940s. Timothy H. O’Sullivan took this photo of the scouts at Apache Lake in Sierra Blanca Range in Arizona Territory in 1873. – COURTESY LIBRARY OF CONGRESS –

honor, although the Army reinstated them in 1977 and 1989. Personally, I think Sieber deserved one.

How important were the U.S. Army’s Apache scouts? Duff Hale Midlothian, Texas

One of the smartest strategic moves by the frontier army during the Indian Wars was to enlist American Indians as scouts. Apaches were formidable foes in New Mexico, Arizona and in the Mexican cities of Chihuahua and Sonora. The wild, untamed land worked to their advantage, making them almost impossible to find. The U.S. Army successfully enlisted Apache scouts to locate and hunt down other Apaches who refused to live on the reservations. Officers from Gen. George Crook to Capt. John Bourke to Lt. Britton Davis all wrote glowing accounts of the bravery and persistence of these Apache scouts,

saying they were invaluable on the campaign trail. Bourke wrote, “The longer we knew the Apache scouts, the better we liked them.” Apache Wars historian Dan Thrapp added: “It grew increasingly apparent that the success of the troops depended on the scouts. Without scouts, the troops couldn’t find the enemy; with scouts they rarely missed. It was as simple as that.” Unfortunately, the country didn’t appreciate their service. After the Apache Wars finished, the federal government exiled the scouts to Florida with all the other Chiricahua Apaches.

Just how prevalent was profanity in the Old West? Mary Lynn Wirick Irving, Texas

Profanity has been around for thousands of years and just about every culture uses it.

Absolutely. Trappers found plenty of pelts in modern-day Arizona, New Mexico and Colorado—areas that were part of Mexico during the first half of the 19th century. Such fluid country borders presented a major problem when trapping in the Southwest. A party could lose an entire season’s trapping if some unscrupulous government official decided to confiscate their furs. Beavers were plentiful in the Gila River and its tributaries, especially in the 1820s. Ewing Young, Joe Walker, Kit Carson, George Yount, Ceran St. Vrain and Antoine Robidoux all trapped in the Gila country. They also used Bent’s Fort, on the American side of the Arkansas River, to launch expeditions into the Southwest. For more, I recommend you read Robert Glass Cleland’s excellent book on the Southwest fur trade, This Reckless Breed of Men. Princeton graduate Robert Glass Cleland, born in 1885, saw his superb general history of the Southwest fur trade published just seven years before the historian died at the age of 72. – COURTESY ALFRED A. KNOPF –

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For a decade of his life, Drew Gomber once had an unusual roommate—a 160-pound gray wolf, Lazarus (shown with Drew here), that stood 33 inches tall at the shoulder.

I got interested in the Old West when, as a six year old, I was watching The Life and Legend of Wyatt Earp, starring Hugh O’Brian. My Dad walked through the room and asked, “You know he was a real guy, right?” I was dumbfounded. The problem with so many Billy the Kid buffs is that they all want to be the most knowledgeable person in the room. The crisis in Lincoln in 1878 could have been solved with a partnership.

A tourist once asked me, “Where was Billy the Kid hanged?” Heavy sigh. People on my tours always ask me, “Were Pat Garrett and Billy the Kid really best friends?”

If I could recommend just one book on Billy the Kid, it would be Frederick Nolan’s The West of Billy the Kid. The problem with Westerns today is most of them are made cheaply and use 1950s B-Westerns as their model. When Tombstone came out, we all thought the 1993 film would herald a change to more historically accurate productions. But they couldn’t go back to the old formats quickly enough—way too many Australian dusters! The best Western, for my money, is Clint Eastwood’s Unforgiven.

My Daddy always told me: “Don’t mix alcohol and

DREW GOMBER, HISTORY BUFF For 15 years, Drew Gomber led tourists on tours of historic Lincoln and Lincoln County in New Mexico, helping them walk in the footsteps of Billy the Kid, follow the paths of people who fought in the Lincoln County War and explore the sites of legendary gunfights. He retired from tours last year to focus on his writing career. He is a frequent contributor to the Ruidoso News and The Tombstone Epitaph and has discussed Old West history on shows for the History Channel, Biography and Discovery.

gunpowder—it tastes awful.”

The biggest risk I have ever taken was joining the military in 1968. Enough said.

A history novice should read everything you can get your hands on. You will find that, despite all of the differences in all of the books, a common thread of information runs through all of them, and that is what happened. Usually. One Old West character I never tire of is Cole Younger. He was a loyal friend, which counts for a lot in my book. I also love how, in his “autobiography” (actually a series of lectures he did), he points out how he has found the Lord. Almost immediately thereafter, he claims the Younger brothers and James brothers had nothing to do with the Northfield raid.

My favorite place in the entire West is Lincoln, New Mexico—despite what the state of New Mexico is currently trying to do to it. T R U E

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On a road trip, I am the one who always seems to get the wrong seat in the vehicle. Some years back, a bunch of historian friends and I were in northern New Mexico, searching for a particular gunfight site. We traversed roads that would barely pass as trails, and were snow covered to boot. At one point, the driver, a boy scout, lost control of our vehicle, which careened to a stop on a small berm, looking down at about a 500-foot drop. The driver turned to me, as I was seated in shotgun (or, in this case, the “death seat”) and asked, “Sir, are you a religious man?” And at that moment, I was. To be a perfect guest at my house, you will be nice to my wife and dogs. Even if they are biting you. Humor is something that makes us laugh, no matter how dumb, but does not hurt anyone, either. The problem with most humor writers today is only they think they are funny.

History has taught me that we need to learn from our mistakes. But who does that?

Wild Bill vs Dave Tutt

Wild Bill’s Last Deal Order your paper or canvas reproductions at: www.andythomas.com studio: 417.359.8787 email: [emailprotected]

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